BBIKDISI 129 BBITISH COLUMBIA
1^6, spread to Denmark, Norway, Finland, Russia, consccratccl Bishop of Rockhampton 10 December.
Poland, North and South Germany, the Nether- 1905, appointed titular Archbishop of Amida and
lands, England, France, and Italy. France had five coadjutor to the Archbishop of Brisbane 26 Feb-
foundations: Ldlle, Douai, Arras, Valenciennes, and ruary, 1912, succeeded to tne see of Brisbane 13
Armentieres. In Italy the first house, Porta Para- January, 1917.
dies or Gate of Paradise, dates from 1394; the The religious orders engaged in educational and second at Genoa from 1426; on the death of the charitable work in this diocese are: Jesuit Fathers, donor, in 1428, the house in which St. Bridget lived Redemptorist Fathers, Christian Brothers, Sisters of in Rome passed to the order and became its ho»- Mercy, Sisters of Perpetual Adoration, Good Samar- pice. In Bavaria the foundation at Altomiinster itan Sisters, Sisters of St. Joseph, Religious of the still remains; this monastery was plundered and Sacred Heart, Sisters of Our Lady of the Sacred partially destroyed twice during the Thirty Years Heart, Ursuline Sisters, Sisters of Charity, and Sis- War (1632 and 1646), its members fled before ters of Nazareth. Primary and secondary schools foreign troops in 1703, and when suppressed in 1803, conducted by the Sisters are inspected annually by no purchaser being found for their cloister, the officers of the state education department. St. nuns were permitted to remain but not to profess Vincent's Orphanage, conducted by the Sisters of new subjects; after many years the few survivors Mercy, receives ten pence a day from the govem- had the satisfaction of seeing the restitution of ment for the support of each child sent to the their house, when on 8 October, 1844, the order institution.
was reinstated. The monastery of Reval in Russia The total population of this territory is approxi-
was burnt by schismatics in 1575. Vadstena, as a mately 300,000 (1922), and of these 70,000 are Cath-
fabric, notwithstanding the covetousness of Gusta- olics. The diocese comprises 52 parochial districts,
vus Vasa, remained untouched for seventy years. 140 churches, 81 secular and 6 regular clergy, 46
The nuns after suffering much persecution were religious brothers, 510 nuns, 7 male and 95 female
favored and sustained by his Catholic son, John lay teachers employed in Catholic schools, 3 board-
XIII (1668-92), but his younger son coming to ing schools for boys and 20 for girls, 15 high schools,
the throne as Charles IX, a determined Protestant, 52 primary schools, 14,031 children attending Cath-
the nims were expelled. The last abbess and her olic schools, 1 technical school, 1 orphanage, 1
eleven daughters, in December, 1595, landed at asylum, 1 hostel for girls, and 2 hospitals. Danzig, and found an asylum in Poland.
In Poland most of the double monasteries sur- British Oolnmbia (cf. C. E., II-791b).— The area
vived until the middle of the nineteenth century, of the province is 355,855 sq. miles, of which 353.416
when with other religious houses they were sup- are land and 2,439 water. The population in 1911
pressed by the Russian Government. The last of was 392,480; an estimate in 1920 gives it as 650,000.
the Polish nuns died in her monastery at Grodno The largest cities with their respective populations
in 1908. In England the celebrated Bridgettine are: Victoria, 38,775; N. Vancouver, 10,584; S. Van-
monasteiy of Syon Abbey (q.v.) is the only pre- couver Municipality, 32,182; Nanaimo, 7,800; New
Reformation house to come down to the present Westminster, 14,400; Vancouver City, 116,700; Point
day in unbroken continuity. Venerable Marina de Grey Municipality, 13,654; Comox-Atlin, 7,100. The
Escobar, foundress of the Bridgettines of the Recol- figures for the total population of the province in-
lection at Valladolid, had applied for admission to elude 25,694 Indians. In 1911 there were 19,568
the Carmelite Order, but St. Teresa told her that Chinese.
she Imew by revelation that her place was not there. Education. — ^Education in British Columbia is in
that God would use her to brmg the Bridgettine charge of a Minister of Education, Deputy Minister,
Order into Spain. There are twelve Bridgettine Superintendent and a Council of Public Instruction
monasteries now in existence: Syon Abbey at composed of the Minister and the other members
Chudleigh in Devonshire, Altomunster in Bavaria, of the Executive Council. All education is free and
IMen and Weert in Holland, the Monastero S. compulsory for six months in the year between the
Birgitta, founded at Rome in 1911, five Spanish ages of seven and fourteen. There is no religious
houses of the Bridgettines of the Recollection (Val- instruction, though the highest morality is incul-
ladoUd, Vittoria, Lasarte, Parades de Nava, and cated. For educational purposes the province is
Ascoytia) and two in Mexico. divided into municipal and rural school districts,
•nr*rtAimi A.^«,«T.rwr«i<,» «• /•noTTT.TTOT^r«^,fl,« . ^* r» and the schools are of three classes, vi«., mimici-
F^^H^^n thf^rL^Li Tt^^^^^^^ P^^ty schools, rural schools, and asksted schools.
fxT il^^'i ^j^^.P'^^^?.^ of Lecce, Italy, with f^or secondaiy education there are the superior
the perpetual admimstration of the djocese of ^^^ools and high schools. Higher education u ob-
Ostimi Archbishop Morando, appointed to this tained in the Univereity of British Columbia, opened
TJ^^^'h^'n^n^ T^^ n^F ^ ^^ l^l^ at Vancouver with an endowment' of two
succeeded by Rt. Rev Tommaso Valen, OF M million acres of Crownlands. In 1920 the provincial
b. at Santa Fiora, 1865, appointed 22 April, 1910, legislature authorized the establishment of colleges
consecrated 5 June following. In July, 1919, Arch- i^^affiliation with the university. At present there
bishop Valen was made a grand officer of the Order ^^^ 153^ g^^^ents and 64 members of the faculty,
of Samts Maurice and Uzarus in recognition of j^ jg^jg ^i^^re were 65,928 children enrolled in the
^SiTJ^ftn J f i^i/?r^^^ .^?n ^ nn'dnr^^^oth^ elementary grades, 5,806 in the secondary grades. 1920 stotistioB i^is terntory counts 110,907 Cath- 3 332 teachera in the publicly controlled schools, of
l^'^i^in^ii^U^^^^^R^^^^^ whom 197 taught in the 45'^high schools. In the
3^ TiSi^^UoU ^^°*^^"' ^^ S^^^ *°^ ^ same year the expenditure was as follows: provincial
churches or chapels. government. $1,791,154; cities, municipaUties. rural
Brisbane, Abchoiocbse op (Bribbanensis; cf. C. and assisted schools, $2,437,566; total, $4,228,720. In
E., II-789b), comprises about 200,000 sq. miles in 1919 the Children's Protection Act freed the chil-
the Colony of Queensland, Austraha. The second dren in an institution from obligation to attend a
bishop, and first archbishop of this see. Most Rev. religious service of different faith.
Robert Dunne, who was appointed to the diocese Religion. — ^The growth of the Church in British
in 1882, died 13 Januaiy, 1917. He was succeeded Columbia while slow has been continuous. Re-
by the present incumbent, Most Rev. James Duhig, cently, however, hostile influences threatened to