Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/392

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HOLY OHIIiDHOOD 376 HOLY COMMUNION

and Christ Child meetines, while their alumnffi in pointed. He continues to labor in this capacity, both countries have undertaken settlement work In 1920 Fr. Knaebel, wishing to labor directly in in London and New York. With regard to college the missions, resigned the directorship and departed work, the first woman in Oxford to receive her for old Calabar, Nigeria, B.W.A. Rev. Lawrence M.A. was one of the Sisters of the Holy Child A. Farrell, C.S.Sp., succeeded him in office in Jesus, while the first B.A. was a student of their October, 1920, but owing to ill health had to resign Oxford house. A great loss to the Society in the following year. In September, 1921, Rev. Wm. America was the death, in 1903, of Mother Mary F. Stadelman, C.S.Sp., succeeded to the national Walburga White, first provincial in the United directorship. The work is now established in 55 States. Two young sisters gave their lives nursing dioceses in the United States, and the membership the sick in their homes and in hospitals during the is over 500,000. The amount collected from March, epidemic of influenza in 1918. They were Mother 1921, to March, 1922, amounted to $168,005.70. Marie Aloysia and Sister Maiy Immaculata. It is estimated that at the present time there are

enrolled in the Association throughout the world Holy OhUdhood, Association of the (cf. C. E., about 20,000,000 Catholic children. The total num- VII-299d). — ^Three years after its foimdation, that ber of pagan infants rescued and baptized from is, in 1846, the Holy Childhood was introduced 1843 to 1921 is 24,411,701. The total amount con- into New Orleans and Baltimore, from which cities tributed for this noble purpose by the children of it slowly branched out and took root in a number all coimtiies for the same period is 191,125,435.03 , of other places in the United States. In the in- francs, which at pre-war rate of exchange amounted terests of this Association the founder, Bishop to $38,825,087. In the various heathen countries Foibin-Janson, traveled and lectured in France, Bel- 285 missions are assisted, 1550 orphanages are main- gium, and in England, but not in the United States, tained, and 11,750 workshops are operated. During though he may have had this in mind, for he 1913 the last normal year before the war, there was died unexpectedly at his home near Marseilles 12 collected in the whole world $862,094.12. In 1914 July, 1844, at the age of fifty-nine years. In 1866 the amount dropped to $295,363.13. During the Rev. Theodore Thiry, S.J., was appointed by his war (1914-19) Germany and Austria discontinued superiors to undertake to extend the Association to contribute, which in part explains the decrease, in the United States. At this time he was attached In 1920 the total sum collected in the whole world to St. FVancis Xavier's Church, New York City. He was 8,001,441.71 francs, which at the rate of pre-war succeeded in introducing the society in many new exchange amounted to $1,600,288, but in reality was parishes, edited the '^ Annals," made the annual re- less on account of the fluctuating values of FVench ports, and accounted for the money received and money. Of this there were contributed in francs transmitted to the Paris headquarters. Associated by: North America, 2,347,013^; France, 1,547,- with him were Rev. B. Piott, of Baltimore, Rev. 806.69; Germany, 1,030,080; Holland, 670,483.48; Edward Joos, V,G., of Michigan, Mgr. Henry Belgium, 633,022.74; Italy, 427,048.14; Switzerland, Muehlsiepen, V.G., of St. Louis, and Rev. Andrew 327,037.76; South America, 233,760.93; Ireland, 228,- Daniel, Agent for the Sulpician Fathers in the 285; Spain, 154,494.55; England, 108,625; Scotland, United States and Canada. The total amount col- 104,500; Asia, 68,011.79; Oceania, 57,855.80; Malta, lected by Fr. Thiry during the twenty-three years 28,97625; Africa, 18,920.34; Denmark, 6320; Portu- that he supervised the work was $162,601.85. His gal, 4375.75; Norway, 320129; Greece, 1623. last work was to compile the report of the Holy On 17 December, 1913, Pius X said of the Asso- Childhood for the year 1888. He died in New York ciation: "We desire greatly that all Catholic chil- City, 13 March, 1889, at the age of sixty-six years, dren join the pious and beneficial Association of After his death a number of centers continued the the Holy Childhood. This would contribute much work, but as they lacked leadership and inspira- to their education, and bring upon them and their tion, interest began to wane and the receipts greatly homes Heaven's choicest gifts. We heartily bless diminished. At the urgent request of the director them and their beloved parents." On 13 September.

feneral of the Association, Mgr. Demimuid, Very 1914, Benedict XV said: "Like our regretted pre- iev, Joseph Strub, C. S. Sp., undertook to reor- decessors of blessed memory, we are anxious to see ganize the work in 1889. In February, 1890, he the membership of the Holy Childhood increased." appointed Rev. Anthony J. Zielenbach, C.S.Sp., And Pius XI likewise encouraged and blessed the director of the German branches. He was assisted Association. » in an executive capacity by Mr. Charles J. Jaegle,

who later in 1916 was knighted by Pope Benedict Holy Oommnnion (cf. C. E., VIII-402) .— Any XV for his services to the Church and the Catholic Driest may brin^ Holy Communion to a sick per- press. With the appointment Fr. Zielenbach, Pitts- son privately with the leave — at least presumed — burgh became the central bureau of the Association of the priest who has care of the Blessed Sacra- in America. Rev. Andrew Daniel, S. S. S., remained ment. Holy Communion should be given under director for Canada and the English branches. In the form of unleavened or leavened hosts accord- 1893 the entire work was entrusted to the Holy ing to the Rite of the minister, except in case Ghost Fathers. In August, 1897, Rev. John Wilms, of necessity, when there is no priest of the proper C.S.Sp., succeeded Fr. Zielenbach. He extended Rite present; under such circumstances, however, the society to 32 dioceses, had it incorporated in the minister is to observe the ceremonies of his New York City in 1912, and raised during his own Rite. Secret sinners who desire to receive directorship over $417,900. He died 3 January, Holy Communion privately are to be refused if 1914. The work was continued by Rev. Francis the mimster knows they are unrepentant, but not Retka, C. S. Sp., until the following October, when if they approach publicly and cannot be passed by Rev. Edward J. Knaebel, C.S.Sp., was placed in without scandal. AU those who have reached the charge. He greatly extended the sphere of the use of reason are obliged to receive Holy Corn- Holy Childhood and put system into its manage- their spiritual director for just reasons tells them ment. During the six years of his directorship he munion at least about Easter each year, unless raised $664,888.95. The work increased so rapidly to refrain temporarily. This Easter precept is to that in 1920 an assistant director became necessary, be fulfilled between Palm Sunday and Low Sun- and Rev. Joseph Rossenbach, C.S.Sp., was ap- day, but the local ordinary may extend the time