Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/777

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Rev. Alexander MacDonald. b. at Malbou, Canada. Vacant he produced his "Dictionnaire de la Bible"

ISJ'ebniary, 1858, ordained 8 March, 1884^ elected (Letouaey ct An6; Paris, 1895-1913). This monu-

- ^ . , -^^« . , -. • - . . -. ^ ^ volumes numbered in

controversial, thoug^ it

„ ^ it treats in separate articles

109 sisters, 13 secular priests, 9 regulars, 2 semina- of each book of scripture, each name of person or

rians, 2 industrial schools, 2 hospitals. One Catholic place, and the entire field of biblical archsology.

periodical is published in the diocese. the exegesis being based on the Fathers, the standara

•«rj^..-j. •AT..... XT A i B Catholic Scripturists, and the ascertained r^ults of

n ?^^^^^^' Vicariate Apoot^c of (cf. modem sciences. In addition to this work, Vigouroux

C.E., XV--413), m Africa. Lx 1911 Kwanda was ja tlie author of "Le Manuel des sciences bibliques"

separated from the vicariate of Southern Nyanaa and (in coUaboration with his brother^ulpician Bacucs) ,

m August, 1916, its name was^ ch^ged to Victona ^hich has run through over a dosen editions and has

Nyansa. The roesent vicar is Rt. Rev. Joseph been translated into Italian, Spanish, and Russian;

Sweens of the Wute Fathers^ho succeeded Rt. «La Bible et les d^couvertes modemes en Palestine,

Kev. Joim Josepn Jturtn 12 i/ecemberj 1912. In enEirypte et en Assyrie has been reprinted six times*

July, 1921 the vicariate apo^ *xSrhvr4 saints et al critique rationaliste," a

Cathohcs, 27,000 catechumens, 25 churehes, 14 refutation of the objections of u^ievers against the

stations, 4 convente for women with 23 Sisters, 6 Bible, in five volumes, ran through five editions;

native secular pn€«ts, 36 r^ani, 6 Brothers, 2 his "6ible poly^otte" in 8 volumes.lrith the Hebrew,

aeminanes, 85 semmanans, 270 elementary schools Qreek, Vul^tTLatin and French (Gkire) versions

(300 tewhers, 18,000 pupils) 14 industrial schools jg ^ popular rather than an erudite compilation. In

(14 teachers. 80 mmuites) and 14 hosmtals. Owmg igosTLeo XIII, who held him in high esteem, ap-

to the hardships of the chmate the foflowing zealous pointed Vigouroux consultor of the newly-^stablished

misfflonanes have died ^ce 191^ Revs. Joseph Kblical Commission, a guarantee of the orthdoxy

Fimbel, Leon IHnch, Herma^ Ton^nus: also, of his exegetical opinions. In addition to his rep-

Sisters Ludwma, Roberta, and G. van der Sanden. utation as a schobir, it may be noted that Vigouroux

Victoria Kyaasa, Northmn, Vicabiatb Apob- 5?® ^^^Uy esteemed at both Rome and Paris as a

Toucop. See Uganda director of souls.

Vienna, Abchdiocesb of (Vindobon; cf. C. Virgin Islands. See America

E., XV— 409b), in Austria. Tne present adminis- —* ^ , «^ * .. a. . . M^^r.^-

trator is His Eminence Cardinal Frederick Gustavo Virginia. —The area of the State is 42,627

Piffl. He was b. at Kdniggratz, 16 October, 1864, «!«*" n^iles. ti 1920 the popdation wm 2,309,187,

regular' priests, 4 seminaries, 1 university, 11 pro- ^^?^ -i^'P^L^MS^? V^fi'^'f ^¥52J*®?X?^® fessors, 137 students, 1 college for men with 8 teachers 1?»??8; Brartx)! 6.729; Fredencksbure 6,882; Wm-

and 220 students; alargenumber of secondary schools, ^^^ P^^LP^^ ^®3Px®»^-I?^, F^PI?^ ^^^;

academies, normal and industrial schools and chari- Radford 4,627; Buena \rista 3,911; Wilhamsburg

table institutions exist throughout the archdiocese. ^»1S?* .• * xi. i x« • ir^cv^

The schools and institutions receive some support from ^ ,?"« ^°ffi?^9°«?i SS P^P'^^^^S^^l??",^?? "

the government. The following distinguished clergy- £fi^^^!^^*««AbJ?^^'S2®' ne5X)es 690,017; Indians

men have died since 1912: ffis Eminence Francis ^ Chmese 278. The native whites numbered

Cardinal Nagl (q. v.). Very Rev. Hermanns Tschokke, ^'^^'i^t'.?^ ^?^ 1,634,494 were ctf native parent-

professor of Biblicai Studies at the University of *««; 30,614 of foreign parentage; 22.116 of mixed

Vienna, and for twenty years a staunch defender parentage. The foreign-born, numbering 30,785

of the ecclesiastical matters under the Austrian S«?e chiefly from England (3762), Russia (6421),

Monarchy. During the war 33 prieste joined ttie Italy (2436), and Germany (2802). Of the popula-

army and many others cared for the spuitual needs *»<>» *«» y««5 of age and over . 196,159 or 11.2 per

of the soldiers in the hopsitals. Both clergy and Uity <»»* were lUiterate. Of these, 122,322 were

contributed generously to the war loans. negro^ (23.6 per cent.) . The negroes who in 1910

formed 32.6 per cent, of the population formed 29.9 Vlgonronz, Fulcrain, Biblical scholar, b. at Nant- per cent in 1920. d'Aveyron in the Diocese of Rodez, France, on 13 Economic Status: The total value of the farm- February, 1837; d. at Saint Sulpice, Issy, on 21 lands with buildings, implemente, machinery, and February, 1916. Probably no one in the last half live stock in 1920 was $1,196,666,772, an increase of the nmeteenth century did more to spread a true of 91.4 per cent in a decade. The farms embrace and scientific knowledge of the Holy Scripture than more than 70 per cent of the total land area or Fulcran Vigouroux. He studied at Kodes and Paris 18,661,112 acres; over one-half representing improved and after his ordination on 23 December, 1861, he acreage. Thenumberof farms was 186,242, of which became a Sulpician. He subsequently taught phuos- 64 per cent are free from debt, the average value of ophy at Autun and Issy, and lectured on Biblical eacn farm, including equipment, being $6,426, and ^xesesis with neat success in the seminary at Paris, of farm land per acre $40.76. The trucking has in- and after 1890 in the Institute Catholique (Paris), creased 660 per cent in forty years. The State stends While holding this position he undertook the com- first in peanute (output 4,416,000 bushels, value pilation and publication of a biblical dictionary, and $6,006,000): third in tobacco (output 177,390 with the assistance and collaboration of a corps of pounds, value $42,674,(XX)). In 1920 the yield of scholars like Pierre Battifol, Coriuy, Delattre. other crops was: com 42^^302.978 bushels, value Hyvemat, Jacquier, Mangenot, Many, Turmel ana $78,260,614; wheat 11,446,027 busheb, value $26,-