Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 2.djvu/659

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BISHOP


589


BISHOP


Benedict XIII in 1725 (A. Lucidi, De Visitatione sacrorum Liminum, 5th ed., Rome, 1883).

Bishops subject to the Propaganda present this statement to the latter congregation (the proper formula is in "Acta Sanctte Sedis", 1891-92; XXIV, 382, "Collectanea", no. 104). In addition they ought also to send, everj- five years, a report to the Propa- ganda according to the formulary drawn up by this congregation, 24 April, 1861 (Collectanea, no. 104). This obligation had formerly been an annual one (Decrees of Propaganda, 31 October, 1838, 27 Sep- tember, 1843, and 23 March, 1844; Collectanea, nos. 97-99; Third Council of Baltimore, no. 14).

Finally, mention may be made of certain privileges enjoyed by bishops. They do not fall under suspen- sions and interdicts, hicB senientiw, i. e. incurred ipso facto, unless express mention of them is therein made; those who are guilty of assaults upon them are pun- ished with an excommunication reserved speciali niodo to the sovereign pontiff; they possess the right of having a domestic chapel and enjoy the privilege of the altare portabile, or portable altar, etc.

V. NoN'-C.\THOLic Use. — The title of bishop is still retained in certain Protestant churches. For its use in the AngUcan Church see Sir R. Pliillimore, "Eccle- siastical Law in the Church of England" (new ed., 1895); F. Makower, "Verfassung der Kirche von England" (1894), and the "Encycl. Britannica" (9th ed.). Ill, 788-789; of., also, O. J. Reichel, "A Short Manual of Canon Law" (The Sacraments), London, 1896, 283-298. For its use in the national Protestant Chui-ches of Denmark and Sweden, see articles treating of those countries, and for its history and use in the Evangelical churches of Prussia and the European continent, Jacobson-Friedberg in " Real-Encycl. f. prot. Theol. und Ivirche" (3d ed., 1897), III, 246-247. For its use in Protestant churches of the United States see B.^ptists, Meth- odists, Mormons. The antiquities and constitution of the Greek episcopate are treated by J. M. Heinec- ci'js in "Abbildung der alien und neuen griechischen Kirche" (Leipzig, 1711), and in Milasch-Pessic, "Das Kirchenrecht der morgenlanchschen Kirche" (Germ. tr. of 2nd ed., Mostar, 1905); the actual con- ditions of the Greek episcopate. Catholic and Ortho- dox (Schismatic), are described in Silbernagl-Schnit- zer, Verfassung und gegenwiirtiger Bestand siimt- licher " Kirchen des Orients" (2nd ed., Ratisbon, 1904), passim.

P.\GANus, Tract, de ord., juHadict. et resident, episc. (Venice, 1570); Fii.ESACus, De sacrd episcoporum auctorUate (Paris, 160-5): Alzedo. De prwceUenti^i episcopalis dignitatis deque episcopi functionibus (Lyons, 1630); Barbosa, Pastoralis sollicitudinis sive de officio et potestate episcopi tripartita de- scriptio (Lyons, 162S); Piacesius, Praxis episcopalis et eccle- siastica omnia et singula officium potestateinqv£ episcopi conctr- nentia compledens (Cologne, 1665); Antonelli, De regimine ecclcsiw episcopalis (Venice, 1705); Benedict XIV, De sj/nodo ditEcesand (Louvain, 1763); Andreucci, Hierarchia ecclesiastica in varias suas partes distributa (Rome, 1766); Petavius, Disaertatio de episcopis et coram jurisdictione et auctoritate (Vienna, 1766): Gavanti, Enchiridion seu manuale episcoporum (Venice. 1769); Thomassin, Vetits ac nova Ecc. disciplina circa bencficia etc. (Venice. 1768), Pt. I, bk. I. ch. i (2). 50-60; Helfert, Rechten und Pilichten der Bischofe und Pfarrer und deren Gehilfen und Stellverlreter (Prague, 1832); BouDC, Tractatus de episcopo uhi et de sj/nodo dioecesand (Paris. 1859); VonScherer, Handbuch des Kirchenrechls (.Gra.1. 1886) 1, 553 (good bibliograph> ); Mei.chers. De canonicd dia-cesis visiiati^ne cum appendice de visitations sacrorum liminum (Cologne, 1893): De Brabandere, Juris canonici compendium (7th ed.. Bruges, 1903), I, 257-299; Zitelli, Apparatus juris eccleaiaatici (3d ed.. Rome. 1903). 32-60; Smith, Elements of Ecclesiastical Law (New York, 1881), I. 271-356; Taunton, The Imw of the Church (London. 1906), 79-123; Vives y Tl'To, De Dignitale et Offlciis Episcoporum et Prirlalorum (Rome, 1905), an encyclopedia of the episcopal office; Cath. Univ. Hitlletin (1906), XII, 363, 364. The antiquities of the bishop's office are collected in Thomassin, op. cit.; Kracs in Realencycl. (1880), I, 162-168; Binterim, Denk- u-urdigkeiten der christkathol. Kirche (1825-58), I (2), 121-145; 363-377; Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Church (new ed., Oxford, 1855). 1, passim (see index in Vol X). For the bishop in medieval England see I.incard. Hitlory and Antiqui- ties of the .Xnglo-Saxon Church (reprint, London, 1899), paarrim; Stubbs, Constitutional Histonj of England (London, 1891),


passim. For the office of bishop in medieval Ireland see Adamnan, Life of St. Columba, Reeves, ed. (Dublin, 1857), 339-341 and passim; Lanigan, Eccl. Hist, of Ireland (Dubhn. 1828); Joyce, .1 Social Hist, of Ireland (London, 1903), 320- 324, 388 and passim: (with caution) Ware-Harris, .Antiqui- ties of Ireland (Dubhn, 1764), I, passim (Bishops of Ireland); Skene, Celtic Scotland (Edinburgh, 1887), II, passim; Car- dinal MoR.vN, Essay on the Origin, Doctrines, and Discipline of the Early Irish Churdi (Dubhn, 1864).

A. V.\u Hove.

Bishop, Auxiliary. See Auxiliary Bishop.

Bishop, Co-\DJUTOR. See Auxiliary Bishop.

Bishop, Willi.\m, the first superior in England in episcopal orders since the old hierarchy died out in the reign of Ehzabeth, bom e. 1553atBrailes, in War- wickshire, where his family continued to reside until recent times; d. 16 April, 1624. He went to Glou- cester Hall, Oxford, in 1570; but retired abroad four years later, :md joined Allen at the English College, Douai. From thence he went to Rome, and after completing his studies and being ordained

Eriest, we find him once more in England, where e was called upon to endure many and great hardships. On at least two occasions, he was ap- prehended, imprisoned for some years, and then ban- ished. It was during one of these periods of banish- ment that he went to Paris and took the degree of Doctor of Divinity at the Sorbonne. Dr. Bishop took a leading part in the unfortunate disputes between seculars and regulars at that time. The latter party, by means of their influence at Rome, had secured the appointment of an " archpriest " as superior of the English mission. The secular clergy resented this, calling out for the restoration of episcopal govern- ment in some form. They became known as "the Appellants", and were favoured by Elizabeth, who contrived to assist them secretly to prosecute their appeals. In 1598 Bishop himself went to Rome, with another priest, to lay their case before the Holy See. On their arrival, however, they found the Jesuit influence still supreme, and by order of Cardi- nal Cajetan, Protector of England, they were im- prisoned at the English College, under Father Per- sons. After three months' confinement, they were dismissed, but with a strict injunction not to go back to England. It was not until there had been further representations and another deputation to Rome that four years later this injunction was removed. Soon after liis return, in 1603, Bishop drew up the famous "Protestation of Allegiance" to Queen Elizabeth, signed by twelve other priests besides himself, in which they definitely took up their stand against those who aimed at the conversion of Eng- land by political means. At least one of these priests (Roger Cadwallador) was afterwards martjTed and probably also a second (Robert Drury), though there is some doubt about his identity. Elizabeth never saw the "Protestation", for on the very day on which it was signed, she was seized with what proved to be her last illness. It was violently denoimced by the opposing party; but it would seem that Rome was large-minded enough not to condemn it, for when more than twenty years later the petition of the clergy was at length granted, and a vicar Apos- tolic of England was appointed with episcopal powers, William Bishop was chosen for the office. He became nominally Bishop of Chalcedon, in partibus infideUum. Dr. Bishop was only to be Vicar Apostolic for ten months; but during that short time he organized a systematic form of ec- clesiastical government, consisting of five vicars- genend, assisted by archdeacons and rural deans throughout the country. He also instituteti a chapter of twenty-four canons, who were to assume jurisdiction whenever there should be for any reason no vicar Apostolic, which happened at one time for thirty years. His right to make such institution has often been questioned, but during the period