Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 2.djvu/679

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BODIN


609


BOEGE


his second trial, he wTote from prison to Dr. Humph- rey Ely, "We consider tliat iron for this cause borne on earth shall surmount gold and precious stones in Heaven. That is our mark, that is our desire. In the mean .season vre are threatened daily, and do look still when the hurdle shall be brought to the door. I beseech you, for God's sake, that we want not the good prayers of you all for our strength, our joy, and our perseverance unto the end. . . . From our school of patience the 16th September, 1583.

At his martjTdom, Bodey kissed the halter, saying, "O blessed chain, the sweetest chain uud richest that ever came about any man's neck ', and when told he died for treason, exclaimed, "You may make the hearing of a blessed JIass treason, or the saying of an Ai'e Maria treason . . . but I have committed no treason, although, indeed, I suffer tlie punishment due to treason". He exhorted the people to obey Queen Elizabeth and died saying, "Jesu, Jesu, esto mihi Jesus". His mother made a great feast upon the occasion of her son's happy death, to which she in- vited her neighbours, rejoicing at his death as his marriage by which his soul was happily and eternally espoused to the Lamb.

Account of the trial aiul execution of John Slade, schoolmaster, and John Body, M.A.. by R. B. (London. 1583); Chai.loner, Memoirs; Sakders, Anglican Schism, ed. Lewis (London. 1877); Pollen, Acts of English Martyrs (London, 1891); Wainewright, Two English Martyrs: Body and Munden (Lon- don, Cath. Truth Soc); Kxox, Douay Diaries (Londpn, 1878); Allen, .4 true, sincere, and modest defence of English Catho- liques (Reims, 1584).

Bede Camm.

Bodin, Jean, b. at Angers, 1.520, probably of Jewish origin: d. at Laon, 1.596. He studied and taught law at Toulouse, where in 1.5.59 he pronounced his"Oratiode instituendain republica juventute", on the public instruction of youth. At the age of forty, he went to Paris, his name being still obscure. By his "Methodus ad facilem historiarimi cognitionem" (1566) he laid the foundation of the philosophy of historj', and set forth his theorj- of the effect of climate on society and government, likewise his theory of progress, both of which were later expanded in "La R^publique". In his " Reponse aux paradoxes de M. de Malestroit, touchant le fait des monnaies et I'en- ch^rissement de toutes choses" (1568), he developed his thesis on the necessity of free trade. The "R^ publique" in six books (French, 1577; Latin, 1586) was wTitten to defend the principle of au- thority and to describe the ideal commonwealth. Bodin represents a reaction against Machiavelli in the field of moral and political science. LTnlike (Mjas and the "Romanist" jurisconsults, who confined themselves to the observation of Greek and Roman antiquity, he drew upon the modern history of Ger- many, England, Spain, and Italy. His theorj' of the influence of climates foreshadows that of Mon- tesquieu. Bodin collects carefully numerous small facts, definite and concrete information; daily ex- perience and the observation of current events are the sources of his almost "scientific" researches con- cerning the laws of political life. It is somewhat sur- prising to note that as early as 1580 this thoughtful ■nTiter wTOte a work (La Dimonomanie des Soreiers) to demonstrate the existence of sorcerers and the legality of their condemnation, on the basis of "ex- perience" and respect for res judicata or the relia- bility of the courts. This belief in witchcraft rests on the same argtmients as his theory of ci^^l govern- ment.

In 1576 this somewhat puzzling man was chosen a deputy of the Third Estate {tiers Hat) to the States- General of Blois where he championed the cause of the Reformers, thereby incurring the royal displeasure. Fourteen years later (1590) as Attorney-General at Laon, he sided with the "Ligue", persuaded the citizens to do likewise, and finally went over to


Henry IV. This superstitious believer in sorcery left in manuscript a work known as "Colloquium Heptaplomeres " which propounds a certain ra- tionalistic spiritualism. Though a civil magistrate and a partisan of the Ligue, his writings exhibit him as one of the earliest advocates of the theory of re- ligious toleration. Brunetiere assigns Bodin a place in French literature beside Henri Estienne and Amyot; at a time when men looked to antiquity for guidance only in the domain of good taste, all three showed that from the same source could be drawn lessons in historj-, politics, and morality.

Though Bodin never abandoned the Catholic re- ligion, and was buried in the Franciscan Church at Laon, his WTitings often betray an un-Catholic temper, when they are not more or less openly hostile to the existing ecclesiastical order. In religion he inclines to an abstract theism. In keeping with the Galilean legists of France he champions the absolute supremacy of the State, though he bases it on the Divine will and the natural law; his ideal prince is not an impious and imjust ruler of the Machiavelli tj^pe. All the works of Bodin were placed on the Index in 1628; the edition of 1900 continues the prohibition of his "Universse natura; theatrvmi". Catholic theologians, like Possevin have noted and refuted in the "Re- publique" certain errors and anti-Christian subtleties. " To judge by his wTitings," says Toussaint (Diet, de theol. cath., II, 918), "he was a bizarre, inconstant, and superficial" man.

Baudrillart, Jean Bodin et son temps (Paris, 1853); Franck, Reformateurs et publicistes de VEurope (Paris, 18(34); Janet, Histoire de la science politique (Paris, 1887); Brune- tiere, Trois artisans de Vidcal classique in Revue des deuz mondes (1 March, 1907); Gramich-Weinand in Staatslerikon (2d ed., Freiburg, 1901), I, 946-952.

Georges Goy.\tj.

Bodleian Codex. See Mss. of the Bible.

Bodone, a titular see of Albania. The name is a dialectic form of Dodone, in Epirus, near Janina at the foot of Moimt Tomaros, or Tmaros, the present Ohtsika (C. Carapanos, Dodone et ses mines, Paris, 1878). \t an early date a Christian church was built here on the site of the temple of Zeus. Theodo- rus, a Bishop of Dodona, was present at Ephesus, in 431; Philothetis appeared at Chalcedon in 451; Uranius, in 458, signed the letter of the bishops of Epirus Vetus to Emperor Leo; Philippus in 516 sub- scribed a sjTiodal report of the bishops of Epirus to Pope Hormisdas concerning the election of John to the See of Nicopolis, the metropolis of the province (Hierocles, Synecdemos, 651, 5). When Naupactus was substituted for NicopoUs about the end of the tenth century, Dodona was the first suffragan see; the " Nova 'Tactica " (Georgius Cj-prius, ed. Gelzer, 1661) has Moi/j-Sirfa, but this is an evident mistake for Boui'SiTfa, a form derived from Bodone (Parthey, Notit.episcop., --^pp. 48). In fact the later "Notitise" wrote only I5ounditza (ibid., Ill, 524), or Bonditza (ibid,, X, 616; XIII, 467). John, Bishop of Bonditza, signed a synodal act in 1229 (P. G., CXIX, 797). The present name is Bonitza. When the Greek residential bishopric disappeared is unknown; the Roman curia used for a long time the forms Bodona and Bodonensis, and a decree of 1894 directed this see to be suppressed at the death of its titular.

Lequien, Or. Christ., I, 139; Gams, Series episcop.. 429; .\rabantino8, Chronography of Epirus, Gr. (Athens, 1857), II, 34,

L. Petit.

Body, Resurrection of the. See Resurrec- tion.

Body, Spiritu.'LL. See Resurrection.

Boece (also Boyce and Boethius), Hector, chronicler and one of the founders of the University of Aberdeen, b. at Dimdee c. 1465; d. 1536. At