is cut into small square pieces, and, after being thoroughly dried, it is packed into cane baskets for exportation. This variety has a light chocolate-brown color, and the cubes are about an inch square, having an earthy fracture and external appearance. The other variety, Cutch, is of a darker color, rich brown, with a shining appearance and fracture, it comes much mixed with broken leaves, in which it has been laid to dry, it is packed in a similar manner to the Catechu, but is most generally run into one mass. Gambler, or Gambir, is an extract of the leaves of the Nauclea Gambir, this plant belongs to the natural order of the Cinchonas, or Jesuits' bark trees. It is made by boiling the leaves and evaporating the decoction to dryness, in appearance it resembles Cutch, but it is not so glossy in its fracture, and rather lighter in color. It is mostly imported from Singapore, where it is extensively cultivated.
Walnut Stain. Boil 11⁄2 ounces of washing soda, bichromate of potash 1⁄4 ounce, in 1 quart of water, and add 21⁄2 ounces Vandyke brown. This stain may be used either hot or cold.
Red Stains. Boil 1 pound of Brazil-wood in 1 gallon of water for three hours or more, add 1 ounce of pearlash, and apply it to the wood whilst hot, then brush over it a solution made of 2 ounces of alum in 1 quart of water. A solution of dragon's-blood in spirits-of-wine makes a very good stain, as already mentioned. The Brazil-wood is cut from a tree about twenty feet high, with prickly branches and yellow flowers, the decoction yields, in dyeing, rose-color, red, and yellow, according to the mordant used. It is not used in dyeing now as much as it was formerly, owing to the introduction of superior materials.
A decoction of Archil forms a very good red stain for common work, two or three washes of it should be given, after which it should brushed over with a hot solution of pearlash and water. Archil, or Orchil, is the coloring matter of the Orchella weed in solution. It does not in dyeing