- 'The Early Flemish Painters: Notices of their Lives and Works,' published on the last day of 1856; this work, of which a third edition appeared in 1879, was translated into French by O. Delepierre in 1862.
- 'A New History of Painting in Italy, from the Second to the Sixteenth Century,' published in three volumes, 1864-8.
- 'A History of Painting in North Italy, Venice, Padua, Vicenza, &c., from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century,' published in two volumes with illustrations in 1871.
- 'Titian: his Life and Times,' two volumes published in 1877, and a second edition in 1881.
- 'Raphael: his Life and Works,' published in two volumes in 1883-5.
These works were all translated into German. Crowe also edited J. Burckhardt's 'Cicerone, or Art Guide to Painting in Italy' (1873-9), and Kugler's ' Handbook of Painting : the German, Flemish, and Dutch Schools' (1874). In 1865 he published 'Reminiscences of Thirty-five Years of my Life.'
The works of Crowe and Cavalcaselle caused a complete revolution in the general style of criticism with which the paintings of the old masters had been wont to be received. Their method of examination not only called attention to the immense wealth of paintings, almost unknown, which existed in North and Central Italy, but recalled into existence numberless painters whose works had been overshadowed or submerged by those of their better known and more successful contemporaries. Since the publication of their works art history and the criticism of the 'old masters' have been expanded and developed into many directions. It is not likely that such pioneers in criticism as Crowe and Cavalcaselle should invariably be found to be infallible, but the greater part of their work has maintained its authority. That their works should be considered at all out of date some thirty years or more after publication is a tribute to the great impetus which these works gave to the study of the subject with which they were concerned. A new edition of the 'History of Painting in Italy' had been projected by Crowe, but only one volume had been completed at the time of his death; the new edition has, however, been continued under the editorship of Mr. S. A. Strong.
[Crowe's Works cited in the text; private information and personal knowledge.]
CROWTHER, SAMUEL ADJAI (1809?–1892), bishop of the Niger territory, was born of negro parents about 1809 at Oshogun, in the Yoruba country, West Africa. In 1821 the village was raided by Fulahs, and Adjai carried off as a slave. The vessel on which he was shipped was captured by a British cruiser, and Adjai landed at Sierra Leone in June 1822. There he entered the Church Missionary Society's schools, and in 1825 was baptised, taking the name of Samuel Adjai Crowther. In 1826 he was brought to England, and on his return entered as the first student at Fourah Bay College, Sierra Leone. He showed so much aptitude that in 1834 he was made tutor of the college. In 1841 Crowther was chosen to join the expedition sent up the Niger by the British government, and discharged his part so well that the Church Missionary Society invited Crowther to England, where he was ordained by the bishop of London in 1843, the first African associated with the Church Missionary Society to receive holy orders. From 1843 to 1851 Crowther worked as a missionary in the Yoruba country. Coming to England in 1851 he was presented to the queen, and then returned once more to his own land. In 1854 he accompanied the Niger expedition of the African Steam Navigation Company; and when a third expedition was formed in 1856, Crowther went with it as the head of a missionary party. In 1864 he was again summoned home, and consecrated bishop of the Niger territory. His subsequent life was devoted to evangelistic and organising work in his diocese, varied by an occasional visit to England. Towards the end difficulties arose in connection with the life and administration of the native church, which had grown up under Crowther's care; but he himself retained to the full the confidence and affection which he had won in earlier life. He died at Lagos on 31 Dec. 1892. He married an African girl, who was rescued with him from the slave ship and afterwards baptised Susanna. They had several children, among them Dandeson Coates Crowther, archdeacon of the Niger Delta.
[Stock's History of the C.M.S.; Headland's Brief Sketches of C.M.S. Workers, No. ii.; Page's Samuel Crowther, 1888.]
CUMMING, Sir ARTHUR (1817–1893), admiral, son of General Sir Henry Cumming, K.C.B., was born at Nancy in France on 6 May 1817. He entered the Royal Naval College at Portsmouth in January 1831, and having passed through the course was discharged, 8 Aug. 1832, to the Rover sloop in the Mediterranean. He afterwards served on the Lisbon and on the North American stations; passed his examination in 1837, and in 1840 was a mate of