Page:Dictionary of National Biography. Sup. Vol II (1901).djvu/169

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Druid
Drummond
157

Geographical Account' (London, 1875, 8vo). It was provided with excellent maps, showing not only the physical features, but the distribution of races, languages, and faiths. A translation by Baron Ernouf was published at Paris in 1877; and in the same year Drew published a more popular account under the title 'The Northern Barrier of India.'

He had been elected a fellow of the Geological Society in 1858, and served on the council from 1874 to 1876. In 1875 he was appointed one of the science masters at Eton, and he remained there till his death on 28 Oct. 1891. He married Sara Constance, daughter of Alfred Waylen, one of the first settlers in West Australia, and he left two sons and two daughters. Sir Archibald Geikie has made mention of 'his gentleness, helpfulness, and entire unselfishness, and his quiet enthusiasm for that domain of natural science to which he had given the labours of his life.'

[Proceedings of the Geological Society: Anniversary Address, p. 50; private information.]

E. M. L.

DRUID, THE, pseudonym. [See Dixon, Henry Hall, 1822–1870.]

DRUMMOND, HENRY (1851–1897), theological writer, born at Park Place, Stirling, on 17 Aug. 1851, was the second son of Henry Drummond (d. January 1888) by his wife Jane (Blackwood) of Kilmarnock, and grandson of William Drummond, a land surveyor, and afterwards a nurseryman at Coneypark, near Stirling. His father, who became head of the firm of William Drummond & Sons, seedsmen of Stirling and Dublin, was a strict disciplinarian, a powerful speaker, and a pillar of the Free North church; his uncle, Peter Drummond, was the founder of the Agricultural Museum in Stirling and of the Stirling Tract Enterprise. He was educated at Stirling High School (1856-63), and at Morison's, Crieff, before matriculating in 1866 at Edinburgh University, where he took classics under Sellar and English under Professor Masson, but he left the university without a degree. In 1868 he started a manuscript magazine, 'The Philomathic,' in which he expatiated upon animal magnetism and other topics. In 1870 he entered the divinity course of the Free church at New College, Edinburgh. In the summer of 1873 he spent a semester at Tübingen. In the autumn of the same year he was drawn into the evangelical revival initiated by Dwight L. Moody and Ira D. Sankey. From April 1874 to July 1875 he followed up the work of the evangelists in the cities of Ireland and England, and he laboured by their side in London. The bulk of his work was in the preparation and delivery of addresses. He grew to be very expert in the management of huge meetings, while in Moody's 'inquiry room' he had experience of all sorts and conditions of men.

The discourses in the volume called 'The Ideal Life' (published posthumously in 1897) were prepared about this time, as were all his widely known published addresses, 'The Greatest Thing in the World' and 'Seek ye first the Kingdom of God.' In spite of many invitations to conduct missions, and a pressing appeal for aid from Moody at Philadelphia, Drummond returned to New College, Edinburgh, in the autumn of 1875. Two years later he was appointed lecturer in natural science at the Free Church College, Glasgow. In 1879 he went to America with Professor (Sir) Archibald Geikie upon a geological expedition to the Rocky Mountains. After a flying visit to Moody at Cleveland, he returned to his Glasgow lecturing and to work in the Possilparts Workman's Mission, Glasgow, which he abandoned only in 1882 in order to assist Moody as an evangelist upon the occasion of his second visit to Britain.

In 1883 he published the book which contributed so largely to his contemporary fame, 'Natural Law in the Spiritual World.' In this he contended that the scientific principle of continuity extended from the physical universe to the spiritual world. The thesis was based upon a series of brilliant figures of speech rather than upon a chain of reasoning, and the fallacies in Drummond's argument were pointed out with clearness and acumen by Professor Denney and others. The book, however, proved amazingly successful; its popularity, due in the first instance to the beauty of the writing, was strengthened by a most enthusiastic review in the 'Spectator,' and within five years of the date of publication some seventy thousand copies were sold.

Within a few days of the publication he set out on a visit to the southern equatorial region of Africa. His commission was to make a scientific, and especially geological, exploration of the Lake Nyasa and Tanganyika district for the African Lakes Corporation. He sailed in June 1883 and went by way of Zanzibar and Mozambique. He brought back a valuable report on the great region which the corporation were administering, and he also kept a full journal, from which he extracted the materials for his admirably written sketch of 'Tropical Africa'