two sons and four daughters. Gay's dissertation was originally anonymous, but in 1758, after his death, a fourth edition of the 'Essay on the Origin of Evil' appeared, in which it was stated that it was chiefly composed by him. A fifth edition appeared in 1781. An article on 'The Ethical System of Gay' appeared in March 1897 in the 'Philosophical Review' of Boston.
[Information kindly given by the Master of Sidney Sussex College: Vivian's Visitations of the County of Devon, 1895, p. 394; Bedfordshire Notes and Queries, ii. 278; Stephen's English Thought in the Eighteenth Century, 1881, ii. 63, 109.]
GEDDES, Sir WILLIAM DUGUID (1828–1900), professor of Greek and principal of Aberdeen University, born on 21 Nov. 1828, was son of John Geddes, a farmer of Fenar, Huntly, and his wife, the daughter of Peter Maconochie, farmer, of Keithmore, Banffshire. He was educated at Elgin academy until 1842, when he entered University and King's College, Aberdeen, graduating M.A. in March 1846, when he was only seventeen. In the same year he was appointed parish schoolmaster of Gamrie, and in 1848 classical master at Aberdeen grammar school. He became rector of the grammar school in 1853, and in 1855 was elected professor of Greek at University and King's College. In the same year he published a 'Greek Grammar,' which reached a seventeenth edition in 1883 (new edit. 1888, second issue 1893). In 1860, when the unification of Aberdeen took place, Geddes became professor of Greek in the united university. He held this post until 1885, and was largely instrumental in reviving and reforming the study of Greek in Scottish universities. In 1885 he was elected principal and vice-chancellor of Aberdeen, in succession to Dr. Pirie. He was created LL.D. of Edinburgh in 1876, Litt.D. of Dublin in 1893, was knighted in 1892, and died at the Chanonry Lodge, Old Aberdeen, on 9 Feb. 1900. He married on 28 April 1859 Rachel Robertson, daughter of William White, merchant, of Aberdeen; she survived him, with an only daughter, Rachel Blanche, who married on 23 June 1887 Mr. John Harrower, professor of Greek at Aberdeen.
Besides the 'Greek Grammar' Geddes published in 1878 'The Problem of the Homeric Poems,' which developed a theory similar to that of George Grote [q. v.], and was commended by Gladstone and Freeman. His edition of Plato's 'Phædo' (1863, new edit. 1885) was a scholarly work. He also published 'Principles of Latinity' (1860), 'Flosculi Græci Boreales' (1882), and 'Historical Characteristics of the Celtic Race' (1885), and edited for the New Spalding Club 'Lacunar Basilicas Sancti Macarii Aberdonensis' (1888) and 'Musa Latina Aberdonensis' (1892).
[Geddes's Works in Brit. Mus. Libr.; Anderson's Officers and Graduates of University and King's Coll. Aberdeen, pp. 67, 298, 323; Who's Who, 1900; Burke's Peerage, 1900; Times, 10 Feb. 1900; Athenaeum, 1900, i. 208, 210.]
GENTLEMAN, TOBIAS (fl. 1614), writer on the herring fishery, was 'borne a fisherman's sonne by the seashore,' and spent his ' youthful time about fisher affaires, whereby I am more skilfull in nets, lines, and hookes then in Rethoricke, Logicke, or learned bookes.' About 1612 he was consulted by John Keymer [q. v. Suppl.], who was collecting information about the herring fisheries with a view to stimulating their development. Gentleman gave Keymer the benefit of his experience, but, nothing having come of his scheme, Gentleman determined to publish his collections himself. They appeared in 1614, under the title 'Way to Wealth and to employ ships' mariners; or, a plaine description what great profite it will bring unto the Commonwealth of England, by the erecting, building, and adventuring of busses to sea a-fishing. With a true Relation of the inestimable wealth that is yearely taken out of his Maiesties Seas by the Hollanders by their numbers of Busses, Pinkes, and Lineboates … and also a Discourse of the Sea Coast Towns of England, … ' London, Nathaniel Butter, 4to; dedicated to Henry, earl of Northampton and warden of the Cinque ports. Nothing more is known of Gentleman, but in 1660 a new edition of his book, with an address to the reader instead of the dedication, and other alterations, appeared as 'The Best Way to make England the richest and wealthiest country in Europe by Advancing the Fishing Trade' (London, fol.); it was also included in the 'Harleian Miscellany,' ed. 1744, vol. Hi., and ed. 1808, vol. viii. Gentleman's scheme was similar to that propounded by Robert Hitchcock [q. v. Suppl.] in his 'Politique Platt for a Prince' (1581), and both Hitchcock and Gentleman are commended by Thomas Mun [q. v.] Gerard Malynes [q. v.] also gives an abridgment of Gentleman's book in his 'Lex Mercatoria' (1622), chap, xlvii.
[Editions of Gentleman's book in Brit. Mus. Libr.; Thomas Mun's England's Treasury by Forraign Trade, 1664, cap. xix.; Palgrave's Dict. of Political Economy.]