to his religious views, is nowhere more apparent than in this work.
His latest work was in the field of chemistry, and included an endeavour to connect the atomic weights with the valencies of the elements by means of a mathematical curve, and the development of what he called the Newtonian chemistry i.e. the hypothesis that the atoms of chemical elements in acting upon one another obey the Newtonian law of gravitation, with this difference, that, whereas the specific coefficient of gravitation is the same for all bodies, the atoms have specific coefficients of attraction for one another which vary with their chemical nature.
Haughton's connection with the Royal Zoological Society of Ireland extended over the whole of his later life. He became a member of council in 1860, honorary secretary in 1864, and president in 1883. But for his energy in grappling with the financial difficulties with which the society was beset during his period of office as secretary, it would probably have ceased to exist.
Among the honours conferred on Haughton by learned bodies may be mentioned the following : F.R.S. 1858, D.C.L. Oxon. (hon. causa} 1868, LL.D., M.D. Cantab. 1880, LL.D. Edin. (hon. causa} 1884, M.D. Bologna (hon. causa), 1888. He was elected president of the Royal Irish Academy in 1887.
Haughton's personal character was no less striking than the variety of his scientific attainments. He had the power of influencing men of the most various dispositions to work together in concert, while the charm of his manner and his bright wit, no less than his honesty and directness of purpose, procured him hosts of friends.
He died at his residence, 12 Northbrook Road, Dublin, on 31 Oct. 1897, having held a senior fellowship for sixteen years. He was buried at Carlow on 3 Nov. He was married and left issue.
Besides his numerous scientific papers Haughton published: 1. 'The Three Kingdoms of Nature,' London, 1869. 2. 'Principles of Animal Mechanics,' London, 1873; 2nd ed. same year. 3. 'Six Lectures on Physical Geography,' Dublin, 1880. He also issued in conjunction with the Rev. Joseph Galbraith a series of scientific text-books; it began in 1851 with a 'Manual of Elementary Mathematics,' and continued for twenty years, most of the manuals reaching third or fourth editions. Haughton also edited (with A. H. Haliday) the 'Natural History Review' from 1854 and the 'Dublin Quarterly Journal of Science' from 1861.
[Cat. Grad. Dublin Univ.; Times, 1 and 4 Nov. 1897; Crockford's Clerical Directory, 1897; Brit. Mus. Cat.; private information.]
HAVELOCK-ALLAN, Sir HENRY MARSHMAN (1830–1897), lieutenant-general, colonel of the royal Irish regiment, eldest son of Major-general Sir Henry Havelock (1795–1857) [q. v.], was born at Chinsurah, India, on 6 Aug. 1830. Educated at the Rev. Dr. Cuthbert's school in St. John's Wood, London, he was commissioned as ensign in the 39th foot on 31 March 1846, was promoted to be lieutenant in the 86th foot on 23 June 1848, and transferred to the 10th foot to take the adjutancy on 13 Feb. 1852. His further commissions were dated: captain 18th foot (royal Irish regiment) 9 Oct. 1857, brevet major 19 Jan. 1858, brevet lieutenant-colonel 26 April 1859, unattached major 28 June 1864, brevet colonel 17 June 1868, major-general 18 March 1878, lieutenant-general 9 Dec. 1881, colonel of the royal Irish regiment of foot 27 Nov. 1895.
On his way out to India in the autumn of 1848 Havelock got a severe sunstroke, which obliged him to return to England on sick leave in 1849, and its effects clung to him through life, causing periodical fits of mental excitement and eccentricity. On the expiration of his sick leave he went back to India, but came home again after a few years, hoping to be employed in the war with Russia. In this he was not successful, but in 1856 went to the staff college, and returned to the East in time to take part in the Persian war.
Havelock was appointed, from 22 Jan. 1857, acting deputy-assistant quartermaster-general of the division commanded by his father in the expedition under Sir James Outram [q.v.] against Persia, and took part in the bombardment and capture on 26 March of Mohamra. He was mentioned in despatches for his services (London Gazette, 18 Aug. 1857), and received the medal. He accompanied his father to Calcutta, where he arrived after the outbreak of the mutiny on 17 June, and, on his father's appointment to command a column for the relief of Cawnpore and Lucknow, went with him to Allahabad as aide-de-camp from 23 June. He took part in the victorious march to Cawnpore, in the actions of Fathpur on 12 July, Aong and Pandu-Nadi on the 15th, and Cawnpore on the 16th, where he greatly distinguished himself, advancing steadily on horseback in front of the 64th foot towards a 24-pounder gun, which was pouring forth first round shot and then grape. The gun