the 'Nautical Almanac' office under the provisions of the superannuation scheme, and died at Twickenham on 23 Dec. 1895 of heart disease, the premonitory symptoms of which had early impeded his activities. His grave is in Twickenham churchyard. He married in 1846, and had six children.
Hind joined the Royal Astronomical Society on 13 Dec. 1844, acted as its foreign secretary 1847-57, and as president 1880-1881. In 1847 and 1851 respectively he was chosen a corresponding member of the Societe Philomathique and of the Academie des Sciences of Paris; he was a fellow of the Royal Society both of London and of Edinburgh, being elected to the former on 4 June 1863; the university of Glasgow conferred upon him an honorary degree of LL.D. in 1882, and the academies of St. Petersburg and of Lund inscribed him among their associates. He was thrice the recipient of the Lalande prize, and gold medals were conferred upon him by the Royal Astronomical Society in 1853 (besides an equivalent testimonial in 1848), by the Royal Society) and by the King of Denmark for his detection of the first comet of 1847; and his profile figured on the obverse of a medal struck by the French Institute in 1869 to commemorate the discovery of the hundredth asteroid. The bestowal of 100l. from the Royal Bounty Fund in 1851, and of a civil list pension of 200l. a year in 1852, more substantially rewarded his services to science.
He wrote: 1. 'The Solar System, 'London, 1852. 2. 'An Introduction to Astronomy, to which is added an astronomical Vocabulary,' published in Bohn's 'Standard Library' in 1852, and in several subsequent editions. 3. 'The Comets: a Descriptive Treatise. With a Table of all the Calculated Orbits,' London, 1852; translated into German by J. H. Madler in 1854. 4. 'The Illustrated London Astronomy,' 1853. The great comet of 1556, of which he predicted the return in two pamphlets, first for the year 1848, then, perturbations being allowed for, about 1858, failed to verify either forecast. He, however, successfully traced the apparitions of Halley's comet back to 11 B.C., was a diligent student of Chinese cometary annals, and computed the orbits of forty-three comets, as well as of many asteroids and binary stars. Numerous communications from him were included in scientific collections, notably in the 'Monthly Notices' and the 'Astronomische Nachrichten,' and his letters to the 'Times' on astronomical occurrences appeared at intervals during forty years. The results of a comparison supervised by him of Burckhardt's and Hansen's Lunar Tables, 1847-65, formed an appendix to the 'Monthly Notices' for 1890, vol. 1.
[Monthly Notices Royal Astronomical Society, lvi. 200; Observatory, xix. 66, 89; Times, 24 Dec. 1895; Knowledge, xix. 63; Nature, liii. 201; Grant's History of Astronomy, p. 290; Clerke's Hist. of Astronomy during the Nineteenth Century; Wolf's Geschichte der Astronomie; André et Angot's L'Astronomie Pratique, i. 96; Addison's Roll of Glasgow Graduates, p. 267; Men of the Time, 1895; Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papers.]
HINE, HENRY GEORGE (1811–1895), landscape-painter, born at Brighton, Sussex, on 15 Aug. 1811, was the youngest son of William Hine, a native of Hampshire, by his marriage with Mary Roffey. His father was at one time coachman to Mrs. Thrale, and afterwards a coachmaster at Brighton. The boy had no regular training in art, but taught himself to draw and paint from nature, and was encouraged by the vicar of a neighbouring Sussex village, who had a collection of water-colours by Copley Fielding, and taught Hine to appreciate the beauties of the South Downs. He painted for some years in Sussex, acquiring some local reputation by sea-pieces and scenes on the coast near Brighton, till he went to London and was apprenticed as a draughtsman to the engraver Henry Meyer [q. v.] On leaving Meyer he went to Rouen, where he spent about two years. He returned, first to Brighton, then to London, where he became a professional wood engraver, and in 1841 extended his practice to drawing on the wood for illustrated journals. Ebenezer Landells [q. v.], who was then projecting the publication of a landscape periodical called ‘The Cosmorama,’ sent Hine to make a drawing of the port of London on the block. A little comic sketch of a dustman and his dog, which he drew on the margin of the block, caught Landells's eye, and the latter engaged Hine as a contributor to ‘Punch,’ the first number of which had been published on 17 July 1841. Hine's first contribution appeared in September, and he continued to work for ‘Punch’ till 1844. He and William Newman were the chief of the regular artists on the staff before Leech took the lead. Hine contributed little black comic sketches, called ‘blackies,’ and cartoons (eight in all) to volumes iii–v. He also illustrated the first ‘Punch's Almanac.’ His most remarkable contribution, however, was the sheet of ‘Anti-Graham Wafers,’ an attack upon the home secretary, Sir James Robert Graham [q. v.], who caused certain private correspondence to be opened, in 1844. At the end of that year Hine withdrew from