fully concluded before the time specified, the day of the closing of the Great Exhibition, 25 Sept. 1851.
Among other works carried out by Crampton were the Berlin waterworks, jointly with Sir Charles Fox; the Smyrna railway, the Varna railway, and various lines in Kent. These were merged into the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway, for which he designed six pioneer locomotives in 1857. The outside firebox shells used upon these and upon the majority of modern engines are still known as Crampton's.
He also invented a rotary dust-fuel furnace, which was used for some time in Woolwich arsenal (see Proc. Inst. Mechan. Engineers, 1876, p. 244), brick-making machinery, and an automatic hydraulic tunnel-boring machine. This last was designed with special reference to the Channel Tunnel project, and was described in a lecture given by Crampton to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers at Leeds in 1882 (ib. 1882, p. 440).
Crampton took a lively interest in the progress of his native place. In 1851 he started the Broadstairs gasworks, subscribing a large portion of the capital, and eventually constructing the works. He also originated and built the waterworks there, and presented the church with its clock. He died at 19 Ashley Place, Westminster, on 19 March 1888. and was buried in Kensal Green cemetery. He was twice married, and left six sons and one daughter, who married Sir Horace Rumbold, ambassador at Vienna.
Crampton was elected an associate of the Institute of Civil Engineers on 3 March 1846, and was transferred to the roll of members on 7 March 1854, his nomination paper being signed by the greatest engineers of the day. He was an original member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 1847, became a member of council in 1879, and a vice-president in 1883. He was on the council of the Society of Telegraph Engineers, and was an officer of the Prussian order of the Red Eagle.
[Engineering, 21 Aug. 1885, 19 Feb. 1886, 27 April 1888; Railway Engineer, April 1888; Engineer, 27 April 1888; Proc. Inst. Mechan. Engineers, July 1888; Iron, 27 April 1888; Proc. Inst. Civil Engineers, vols. viii. xvii. xlvi.; Pettigrew's Locomotive Engineering, pp. 21, 203; Stretton's Development of the Locomotive, p. 100; Grande Encyclopédie, s.v. 'Crampton;' Times, 25 April 1888.]
CRAVEN, Mrs. PAULINE MARIE ARMANDE AGLAÉ (1808–1891), authoress, was born on 12 April 1808 at Craven 36 Manchester Street, London, and was baptised in the French chapel, King Street, Portman Square. Her parents were French émigrés; she was the eldest daughter. Her father, Comte Auguste Marie de La Ferronay's, was of Breton stock, and is mentioned for his uprightness and tolerance by Chateaubriand in the 'Memoires d'Outre-Tombe.' Her mother, also of good family, was Marie Charlotte Albertine de Sourches de Monsoreau. The Comte de la Ferronays returned to France with the Due de Berri in 1814. When a quarrel with the duke drove him from court he was appointed ambassador to St. Petersburg, a post he filled for eight years. In 1827 he returned to Paris as minister for foreign affairs under Charles X. Thus Pauline, then nineteen years old, was launched on all the brilliant society of the Restoration. In 1828 her father resigned the French foreign office, and was appointed French ambassador to Rome. The journey thither, via Pisa and Florence, was made in the company of Rio, the art critic, who persuaded Pauline to put her impressions of a visit to the catacombs on paper. The revolution of 1830 obliged her father to resign the French public service, and the family went to live at Naples. On 10 Feb. 1832 she seems to have formed one of a party who, in company with Sir Walter Scott, visited Pompeii (cf. Scott, Journal, ed. 1891, p. 876). At Naples Pauline met Augustus Craven, son of Keppel Richard Craven, [q.v.] and grandson of Elizabeth, Margravine of Anspach [q. v.], an attaché to the British legation at Naples. They became engaged, and Craven had to overcome his father's opposition to his marriage with a Roman catholic; but the elder Craven finally agreed to settle 17,000l. on the couple. The marriage took place on 24 Aug. 1834 in the chapel of the Acton Palace at Naples. Mr. and Mrs. Craven went immediately to Rome, where the former was received into the Roman catholic church.
A series of family sorrows now overtook Mrs. Craven. Her brother Albert died in 1836, her father and two sisters in 1842, and in 1848 she lost her mother. Craven was for a while paid attaché at Lisbon, and in 1843 was appointed secretary of legation at Stuttgart. During his period of office they lived partly at Carlsruhe, partly at Baden. In 1847 they spent some time in Paris, Craven acting for a while as secretary to Lord Normanby, British ambassador in Paris. After 1849 Mrs. Craven often visited England, and was a frequent guest of Lord Palmerston, Lord Ellesmere, and Lord Granville. All her friends in this country, among