Rigby in Lincolnshire. Later descendants of Aylmer are Colonel Whitgift Aylmer, who died 1701 (Le Neve, Monum. Angl, 1650–1718, pp. 190, 197), and Brabazon Aylmer, Esq., of the Middle Temple, who married Miss Bragge 81 July 1735 (Gent. Mag., 1735, p. 500 a). Aylmer was succeeded in his see after some interval by Richard Vaughan, whom he had befriended in his lifetime, and who appears to have been related to him either by marriage or descent (Baker, Hist. of St. John's College, ed. Mayor, p. 255).
Aylmer is supposed to be designated by Spenser in his 'Shepheard's Calendar' (July) under the name of Morrell, the 'proude and ambitious pastour'—the name being formed by syllabic transposition from Elmer, just as Algrind, in the same eclogue, is formed from Grindal. The puritans in like manner nick-named him Marelme (Hay any Worke for Cooper, ed. Petheram, pp. 24, 26).
It can hardly be questioned that, both from his views and his temperament, Aylmer was ill qualified to fill the episcopal office in the trying times in which he lived. He gave especial offence to the puritans by his endeavour to introduce that conception of Sunday observance which the Anglican party at large subsequently sanctioned, and his practice of playing at bowls on the sacred day was a source of much scandal (Marprelate's Epistle, pp. 6, 52, 54). Like Laud, whom in some respects he much resembles, he deserves to be commended for his attachment to learning and for his discerning patronage of scholars. He was an accomplished logician, was well acquainted with Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, had studied history, and had the reputation of being a good civilian. His reputation as a scholar and a writer is indicated by the fact that, like Dr. Still and Alexander Nowell, he was requested to compose a confutation of the 'Disciplina' of Walter Travers, the recognised text-book of both the earlier and the later puritanism (Churton's Nowell, p. 223); Burghley also urged upon him the task of replying to the 'Ten Reasons' of Campian, the Jesuit. With neither of these requests did he think fit, however, to reply.
The only one of his works that here calls for notice is his reply to the 'Monstrous Regiment of Women' of John Knox, entitled 'An Harborowe for faithfull and trewe Subjects, against the late blowne Blaste, concerning the Government of Women. Strasburgh, 1559'—a composition the merits of which are admitted by Knox's own biographer, Dr. M'Crie. Of his other writings (chiefly sermons and devotional works) full particulars will be found in Cooper's 'Athenæ Cantabrigienses,' ii. 171–2.
[Life by Strype; see also a copy with MS. notes by Baker in St. John's Coll. Library, Cam.; Cooper, Athenæ Cantabrigienses; the Marprelate Tracts, passim; Maskell's History of the Martin Marprelate Controversy; Clarke's Ipswich, 447; Ashmolean MSS.; Nicolas's Life of Sir Chr. Hatton, index; Marshall's Genealogist's Guide; Marsden's Early Puritans; Haweis' Sketches of the Reformation; Hunt's History of Religious Thought, i. 73–76; Zürich Letters; Maitland's Essays on the Reformation, 200–225; M'Crie's Life of Knox, 162–167.]
AYLMER, MATTHEW, Lord Aylmer (d. 1720), admiral and commander-in-chief, was the second son of Sir Christopher Aylmer of Balrath, county Meath, and entered the navy under the protection of the Duke of Buckingham, as a lieutenant, in 1678. Early in the following year he was advanced to the rank of captain; and he appears to have served almost constantly, during the next ten years, on the coast of Algiers and in the Mediterranean. In October 1688 he was appointed captain of the Swallow in the Thames, but at once gave in his allegiance to the cause of the Revolution. In 1690 he commanded the Royal Katherine, and, in the battle off Beachy Head, was one of the seconds to Sir Ralph Delavall who commanded the blue squadron; and in 1692, still in the Royal Katherine, was one of the seconds of the commander-in-chief at Barfleur. In February 1693 he was advanced to the rank of rear-admiral, and to that of vice-admiral in the following year, when he accompanied Admiral Russell to the Mediterranean. After the peace of Ryswick he was sent, in 1698, as commander-in-chief, again into the Mediterranean, principally to confirm the treaties with the regencies of Tripoli, Tunis, and Algiers; which he happily accomplished, and returned home towards the end of the next year. In November 1699, being, it is said, dissatisfied at the appointment of Admiral Churchill to the admiralty, he retired from active service, though he continued to act as one of the commissioners of the navy till July 1702. He took no part whatever in naval affairs beyond sitting in parliament as baron or member for Dover, till after the death of Prince George, and the retirement of Churchill in November 1709, when he was appointed commander-in-chief of the fleet. In the following July, whilst cruising in the Soundings, he fell in with a French squadron and convoy, of which only one merchantman and the Superbe, of 56 guns, were captured; the rest escaped, owing, it was alleged, to the