Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 12.djvu/70

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England (Sbaralea, Supplement to Wadding's Scriptores Ordinis Minorum, p. 633, Rome, 1806), and in the same year was associated with twelve other provincials in drawing up a reply to the mischievous opinions of Ubertino da Casale (Wadding, Annales Ordinis Minorum, vi. 171, ed. Rome, 1733), who was then among the most active representatives of the extreme doctrine respecting evangelical poverty, formerly championed by Peter Johannis of Olivi. The part taken by Conyngton in this affair implies that he was present at the papal court at Avignon during the negotiations preceding the council of Vienne (cf. Ehrle in the Archiv above cited, ii. 356–59, 1886). But of his further history nothing is recorded, except that he died at Cambridge (Monum. Franc. pp. 538, 560) in 1330 (Bale, MS. Bodleian Library, cod. Seld., supr. 64, f. 216 b), and was buried there.

Conyngton was held in high repute as a schoolman. His chief work, a commentary on the ‘Sentences’ of Peter Lombard, is repeatedly cited by Baconthorpe (ubi supra) and Robert of Walsingham (Bale, Scriptt. Brit. Cat. iv. 83, p. 369). But he also took part in the great Franciscan discussions of his day, and wrote a ‘Tractatus de Paupertate contra opiniones fratris Petri Johannis,’ of which a manuscript is preserved at Florence (A. M. Bandini, Catal. Codd. Lat. Biblioth. Medic. Laur. iv. 717 et seq., 1777; the title is incorrectly given by Sbaralea, l. c.), and which we may perhaps connect with the proceedings against Ubertino da Casale referred to above. Another treatise by Conyngton, ‘De Christi Dominio’ (Leland, Comm. de Scriptt. Brit. cccxli. 331)—if the addition to its title given by Wadding (Scriptt. Ord. Min. p. 207, ed. 1806), ‘contra Occamum,’ be genuine—would seem to involve him in the later dispute about evangelical poverty, in which Ockham does not appear to have engaged before 1322 (cf. Riezler, Die literarischen Widersacher der Päpste zur Zeit Ludwig des Baiers, pp. 71, 241, Leipzig, 1874). It is presumably an answer to Ockham's book, ‘De Paupertate Christi,’ which has never been published (Wadding, Scriptt. Ord. Min. p. 106). Besides these works, Conyngton wrote a commentary on the ‘Quadragesimale’ of St. Gregory, and ‘Quodlibeta’ (Leland, l. c.), as well as an ‘Expositio in septem Psalmos Pœnitentiales,’ of which Bale found a copy in the Franciscan monastery at Norwich (MS. ubi supra, f. 160).

The name ‘Conyngton’ alternates with ‘Coniton’ in the Franciscan lists printed by Brewer. Baconthorpe regularly gives ‘Comigton.’ ‘Covedunus’ seems to be a fancy of Leland's.

[Authorities cited above; also Wadding's Annales Ordinis Minorum, vii. 168 et. seq., ed. 1733.]

R. L. P.

COOK. [See also Coke and Cooke.]

COOK, EDWARD DUTTON (1829–1883), dramatic critic and author, was son of George Simon Cook of Grantham, Lincolnshire, a solicitor, of the firm of Le Blanc & Cook, 18 New Bridge Street, Blackfriars, London, who died on 12 Sept. 1852, leaving a family of nine children. Edward Dutton, the second son, was born at 9 Grenville Street, Brunswick Square, London, on 30 Jan. 1829. At the age of six he went to a school kept by a Miss Boswell at Haverstock Hill, was removed to another school at Bradmore House, Chiswick, and finally, about 1843, entered King's College School. Having completed his education, he was articled to his father, and remained in his office about four years, when he obtained a situation in the Madras Railway Company's office in New Broad Street, city of London, and in his spare time followed his artistic and literary tastes. As soon as he was able to do so he left the railway company and devoted himself entirely to literature as a profession. Having studied painting under Rolt, and learned engraving, he at one time sought employment on ‘Punch’ as a draughtsman on wood. In 1859 he became a member of the Artists' rifle corps, and also a member of the Ramblers' Club, which met every night from November to May at Dick's Tavern, 8 Fleet Street. About this period, in conjunction with Mr. Leopold Lewis, he wrote a melodrama entitled ‘The Dove and the Serpent,’ which was produced with much success, under Mr. Nelson Lee's management, at the City of London Theatre. From 1867 to October 1875 he was dramatic critic to the ‘Pall Mall Gazette,’ and from that date to his death to the ‘World’ newspaper. He was the writer of numerous articles on art topics in various reviews, newspapers, and periodicals, and the author of many works of fiction. Of the latter, ‘Paul Foster's Daughter,’ his first work, served to establish his reputation, and the production of ‘The Trials of the Tredgolds’ in the following year (1862) in ‘Temple Bar’ was a great literary success. His later novels did not maintain the popularity which his earlier works achieved. This was from no lack of merit, but because he was not sufficiently sensational in his style to suit the spirit and fashion of the period. He was one of the contributors to this ‘Dictionary,’ and