Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 21.djvu/319

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Exhibition of 1851, to the purposes of Practical Banking.’ In 1859 he retired on a pension of 1,600l. per annum from the bank. He died at Brompton Crescent, London, 8 Aug. 1863.

Besides being a fellow of the Royal Society, Gilbart was a member of the Statistical Society (to whose ‘Transactions’ he contributed various papers) and various other learned bodies. He took part in the International Statistical Congress held in July 1860. His writings on banking are valuable as the work of a man of good education and strong practical sense, who has a thorough mastery of the subject. ‘They contain,’ remarks McCulloch, ‘much useful information, presented in a clear compendious form.’ Besides the works noticed Gilbart wrote: 1. ‘The History and Principles of Banking,’ 1834, republished, revised, and incorporated with the ‘Practical Treatise on Banking,’ as ‘The History, Principles, and Practice of Banking,’ by A. S. Michie, in Bohn's Series, 1882. 2. ‘The History of Banking in Ireland,’ 1836. 3. ‘The History of Banking in America, with an inquiry how far the Banking Institutes of America are adapted to this country, and a Review of the causes of the recent Pressure on the Money Market,’ 1837. 4. ‘An Inquiry into the Causes of the Pressure on the Money Market during the year 1839,’ 1840. 5. ‘The London Bankers, an Analysis of the Returns made to the Commissioners of the Stamps and Taxes by the Private and Joint-Stock Bankers of London, January 1845,’ 1845. 6. ‘Lectures on the History and Principles of Ancient Commerce,’ 1847. 7. ‘A Record of the Proceedings of the London and Westminster Bank during the first thirteen years of its existence; with portraits of its principal officers,’ 1847 (privately printed). 8. ‘Logic for the Million,’ 1851 (6th ed. 1860, also ‘Logic for the Young,’ adapted from Watts's ‘Logic,’ 1855). 9. ‘Elements of Banking,’ 1852. 10. ‘The Laws of the Currency, as employed in the Circulation of Country Bank Notes in England since the passing of the Act of 1844,’ 1855 (reprinted, with a portrait, from the journal of the Statistical Society). 11. ‘The Moral and Religious Duties of Public Companies’ (in 1856, with portrait). 12. ‘The Philosophy of History,’ 1857 (not published). 13. ‘The Logic of Banking, a familiar exposition of the principles of reasoning, and their application to the Art and Science of Banking,’ 1859. 14. ‘The Social Effects of the Reformation,’ 1860 (a reply to Cobbett's ‘History of the Reformation’). All Gilbart's chief works went through several editions. They were republished in a collected form in six volumes in 1865.

[Memoir prefixed to Works; Bankers' Mag. September 1863, p. 652; Gent. Mag. September 1863, p. 385; McCulloch's Literature of Political Economy; Brit. Mus. Cat.]

F. W-t.

GILBERT the Universal (d. 1134?), bishop of London, is described as ‘natione Britannus’ by Richard of Poitiers, who probably means a Breton rather than a Welshman (ap. Bouquet, p. 415). Le Neve makes him a relative of ‘Henry, bishop of Ely’ (?Hervey, bishop of Ely, 1109–33), at whose ‘suggestion he left his school at Nevers’ for England (ed. Hardy, ii. 188; cf. Stubbs, p. 162). Le Beuf prints a charter which shows that in 1120 he was a ‘magister’ at Auxerre, probably directing the episcopal schools there (Le Beuf, iv. App. No. 19), and the Nevers necrology proves him to have been treasurer in this city also (ib. ii. 468), where, according to Henry of Huntingdon, he was teaching at the time of his appointment to London (ed. Arnold, p. 307; cf. Harpsfeld, p. 350). Other contemporary authority makes him at that epoch a canon of Lyons (Cont. of Florence of Worcester, ii. 89). He was already ‘grandævus’ when, thanks to Henry I and Archbishop William de Corbeil of Canterbury, he was consecrated on 22 Jan. 1127 bishop of London, in succession to Richard de Belmeis [q. v.] (ib.; Henry of Huntingdon, p. 247; Matthew Paris, ii. 153). Florence seems to date his consecration 27 Henry I (i.e. 1127); but as his predecessor did not die till January 1127–8 (Stubbs, p. 25), it should perhaps be 1128 (Florence of Worcester, p. 89; cf. Ralph de Diceto, i. 245; Henry of Huntingdon, p. 247). About 1 Aug. 1129 Gilbert took part in the great council of London which condemned the marriage of priests (Henry of Huntingdon, pp. 250–1); on 4 May 1130 he was present at the Canterbury consecration, and a little later at that of St. Andrew's in Rochester (Anglo-Saxon Chron. ii. 227). It was perhaps about this time that he sent his blessing to St. Bernard, who praised the poverty of his life (Epp. Bernardi, No. 24). His name appears twice in the pipe roll of Henry I, which is ascribed to 1130–1 (Rot. Mag. Pip. pp. 55, 61). He seems to have died on 12 Aug. 1134, while accompanying the bishop of Llandaff (Urban) to Rome (Auxerre Martyrology, p. 716; Ralph de Diceto, i. 247; Matthew Paris, ii. 159). Orderic Vitalis, however, appears to put his death in 1136 (v. 78); Mabilon assigns it to 1133 (Note ap. Migne, clxxxii. coll. 127–8), and the ‘Margam Annals,’ by implication, to 1134 (Ann. Margam, p. 13).