Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 22.djvu/431

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to which is added his Letter on the Union, with a commentary on his career and character by D. O. Madden,’ Dublin, 1845, 8vo; second edition, Dublin, 1853, 12mo; ‘second edition,’ Dublin, 1854, 12mo, forming part of ‘The Orators of Ireland.’ Grattan's ‘Miscellaneous Works’ were published in 1822 (London, 8vo).

[Memoirs of the Life and Times of Henry Grattan, by his son Henry (1839–46); Grattan's Speeches (1822); Madden's Memoir (1846); J. G. McCarthy's Henry Grattan: an Historical Study (1886); R. Dunlop's Life (1889); Hardy's Life of Lord Charlemont (1812); Sir J. Barrington's Historic Memoirs of Ireland (1833); Charles Phillips's Curran and his Contemporaries (1857); Lecky's Leaders of Public Opinion in Ireland (1871); Lecky's History of England in the 18th Century, vols. iv. and vi.; Plowden's Historical Review of the State of Ireland (1803); Froude's English in Ireland (1881); Lord Stanhope's Life of Pitt (1861–2); Lord Mahon's History of England (1858), vol. vii.; Cornwallis Correspondence (1859), vols. ii. and iii.; Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography (1878), pp. 224–33; Lord Brougham's Statesmen of the Time of George III (1839), 1st ser. pp. 260–8; Dublin University Magazine, vii. 229–63, lxxxvii. 225–31; Macmillan's Magazine, xxx. 166–84; Burke's Landed Gentry (1862), pt. i. p. 591; Chester's Westminster Abbey Registers (1876), p. 496; Cat. of Dublin University Graduates (1869), p. 231; Official Return of Lists of Members of Parliament, pt. ii. pp. 224, 240, 255, 270, 282, 297, 665, 668, 673, 677, 683, 691; Annual Register (1820), pt. i. pp. 42–3, Chronicle, pp. 174–5, 230–1, 256, pt. ii. pp. 1174–86; Gent. Mag. 1782 lii. 598, 1820 xc. pt. i. pp. 563–5, 640, pt. ii. pp. 69–70, 1836 new ser. v. 544, 1847 xxviii. 533, 1853 xl. 540, 1854 xlii. 624, 1859 3rd ser. vii. 202, 1865 xviii. 387; Brit. Mus. Cat.]

G. F. R. B.

GRATTAN, THOMAS COLLEY (1792–1864), author of ‘Highways and Byways,’ born in Dublin in 1792, was son of Colley Grattan of Clayton Lodge, co. Kildare, formerly a solicitor in Dublin, who afterwards retired to the country and devoted himself to agricultural pursuits. He was educated in Athy by the Rev. Henry Bristow; was afterwards sent to Dublin to study law, but having no liking for the profession accepted a commission in the Louth militia, with which regiment he did duty in several towns in the north of England. He had desired to enter the army, but the war being over no commissions were to be obtained. Having decided to take a share in the war of independence, then raging in South America, he embarked for Bordeaux in 1818, there to take a ship bound to Venezuela, but on his passage he met Miss Eliza O'Donnel, and having married her settled in the neighbourhood of Bordeaux. Here he commenced the profession of an author, his first work being ‘Philibert,’ an octo-syllabic poem in six cantos. In a short time he removed to Paris, where he made the acquaintance of Moore, Washington Irving, Thiers, Béranger, Lamartine, and other distinguished literary men, and became a constant contributor to the ‘Westminster’ and ‘Edinburgh’ Reviews, the ‘New Monthly Magazine,’ and other periodicals. His translations from modern French poets were very successful. He also commenced a serial of his own, which he called ‘The Paris Monthly Review of British and Continental Literature, by a Society of English Gentlemen.’ No. 1 came out in January 1822, and No. 15 (April 1823) appears to have been the last issue of this magazine. By Washington Irving's advice he reduced to order the memoranda of some of his tours, and submitted the manuscript to four publishing houses of eminence in succession, who all rejected it. This work was ‘Highways and Byways, or Tales of the Roadside,’ which, on its appearance in 1823, dedicated to Washington Irving, made its author's name widely known both in England and on the continent, and was several times reprinted. The second series of these tales came out in 1825, and the third in 1827. Grattan's next public appearance was as the writer of a tragedy, ‘Ben Nazir, the Saracen.’ This was produced by Edmund Kean at Drury Lane Theatre on 21 May 1827, but the actor, through ill-health and domestic misfortunes, broke down, and the play failed with him (Morning Post, 22 May 1827, p. 3).

Having sustained pecuniary losses, Grattan removed to Brussels about 1828. He there produced ‘Traits of Travel,’ which was received with well-deserved favour; ‘The Heiress of Bruges,’ one of the best historical romances of the day; and ‘The History of the Netherlands,’ which has become a standard work. In 1830 the revolution drove him from Brussels; his house was almost destroyed by cannon and his property was pillaged. He retired to Antwerp, and accompanied the Prince of Orange from that town to the Hague, where he wrote ‘Jacqueline of Holland.’ In May 1831 he was at Heidelberg, where he was stimulated to fresh literary exertions, and composed the ‘Legends of the Rhine.’ About the same time (1832) he was appointed gentleman of the privy chamber to William IV. Returning to Brussels he was well received by King Leopold, and henceforth for some years again resided in Belgium. He was now a frequent contributor to the British and foreign reviews, writing upon the state of European affairs, chiefly in connection