Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 26.djvu/164

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Andrews. Forman, the successful candidate, being unable to obtain possession agreed ultimately to a compromise, by which Hepburn, besides retaining the rents already collected, should receive those of the church and lands of Kirkliston, Linlithgowshire, belonging to the archbishopric. It was also arranged that Hepburn's brother James should be made bishop of Moray, and his nephew prior of Coldingham. On the return of Albany to Scotland, Hepburn, who according to Buchanan was both profoundly covetous and implacably revengeful, insinuated himself into his confidence, and used his influence to poison his mind against Angus, who had supported Gavin Douglas and Home when they took up arms in behalf of Forman. The ultimate result was that Angus had to flee to France, and Home, convicted of a treasonable attempt against the governor, was beheaded [see under Stewart, John, fourth Duke of Albany, and Douglas, Archibald, sixth Earl of Angus]. Whatever Hepburn's faults of character, he administered the affairs of the monastery with energy and skill. Hector Boethius states that he greatly decorated and otherwise improved the monastic building, and also adorned the cathedral at great expense. Towards the close of his life he surrounded the priory and St. Leonard's College with a wall, a considerable portion of which, known as the abbey wall, is still standing, and at various parts bears his arms and initials, with the motto ‘Ad vitam.’ He also commenced the library of St. Leonard's College, and his name is to be seen on some of the books still preserved. He died in 1522. His monument stands in St. Leonard's Chapel, but is so worn and defaced that no inscription is now visible.

[Reg. Mag. Sig. Scotl.; Histories of Scotland by Boethius, Buchanan, Leslie, and Lindsay of Pitscottie; Histories of St. Andrews by Lyon and Charles Rogers; Gordon's Eccl. Chron. Scotland, iii. 86.]

T. F. H.

HEPBURN, Sir JOHN (1598?–1636), Scottish soldier of fortune, was the second son of George Hepburn of Athelstaneford, a small property near Haddington, held feudally of his kinsmen, the Hepburns of Waughton. He is probably the John Hepburn who matriculated at St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, in 1615. At the end of that year he visited Paris and Poitiers with his schoolfellow, Robert Monro. In 1620, although a catholic, he joined the Scottish force under Sir Andrew Gray which was fighting for the elector palatine in Bohemia. In 1622 he fought with distinction under Mansfeldt at the defence of Bergen-op-Zoom in July, and at the battle of Fleurus 30 Aug. When Mansfeldt's army was disbanded next year, Hepburn led the Scottish companies to take service in Sweden, where his high military qualities won the favour of Gustavus, who in 1625 made him colonel of one of his Scottish regiments (of which the Royal Scots regiment in the British line, the old 1st foot, is the direct representative). Hepburn's regiment was engaged in the invasion of Polish Prussia, and especially in the defence of Mewe in 1625; next year it took part in the operations round Danzig under Sir Alexander Leslie [see Leslie, Alexander, first Earl of Leven], in 1627 it formed part of the army which invaded Prussia and Hungary, and in 1628 was in Poland. Hepburn in 1630 relieved his countryman Monro, who was besieged at Rügenwalde, and became governor of that town. In March 1631 Gustavus formed the four Scotch regiments into the Scots (or Green) brigade, giving the command to Hepburn. The latter, assisting in the siege of Frankfort-on-the-Oder, blew up one of the town gates, and was leading his men into the place when he received a shot ‘above the knee that he was lame of before,’ but he had his wound dressed and resumed his command. He took part in the capture of Landsberg, by which Pomerania was cleared of the imperialists, and the battle of Leipzig, 7 Sept. 1631, was decided by the charge of his brigade; later on in the same year he was present at the storming of Marienburg and Oppenheim, and at the surrender of Mentz, December 1631, where he remained with Gustavus till the following March, and then marched to Frankfort-on-the-Main, capturing Donauwörth on his way, and being publicly thanked by Gustavus. He was next quartered at Munich, his brigade being the first to enter the town, and acting as bodyguard to Gustavus. In June he joined the Swedish camp near Nuremberg. He there took offence at some supposed slight, the nature of which is not known, and sheathing his sword he said to the king, ‘Now, sire, I shall never draw it more in your behalf.’ He did not leave, however, until after the battle of 24 Aug. 1632, giving his counsel though refusing to take part in it. The Scottish officers accompanied him a mile on the road, and there was an affecting parting. After a visit to Scotland Sir John—whether he was ever knighted by Charles I is uncertain, but the ‘Swedish Intelligencer’ 1630 styles him ‘Sir John Hebron’—offered his services to France. They were eagerly accepted, and on 18 March 1633 he took leave of Louis XIII at Chantilly, before starting for Scotland to raise two thousand men. In August he arrived at Boulogne with his recruits, ‘good soldiers, mostly gentlemen.’ The remnant of the Scots