Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 27.djvu/322

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viving son, John, who lost his life by the wreck of the Gloucester frigate in 1682.

[Diary of Sir Thomas Hope (Bannatyne Club); Nicoll's Diary (Bannatyne Club); Balfour's Annals of Scotland; Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser., during the Protectorate; Douglas's Scottish Peerage, ed. Wood, i. 743; Brunton and Haig's Senators of the College of Justice, pp. 337–338.]

T. F. H.

HOPE, JAMES, afterwards James Hope Johnstone, third Earl of Hopetoun (1741–1816), born in 1741, was second son and fourth child of John, second earl, by his first wife, Anne Ogilvy (d. 1759), second daughter of James, fifth earl of Findlater and Seafield. He became ensign in the 3rd regiment of foot-guards 9 May 1758, served with his regiment at Minden, and quitted the army in 1764 in order to travel with his elder brother, Lord Hope, who was in declining health. In 1781 he succeeded to the earldom on the death of his father, in 1784 was chosen a representative peer of Scotland, and in 1790 took part in a disputed election for representative peers, he claiming unsuccessfully that he and the Earl of Selkirk had been lawfully chosen (see The Petition of Douglas, Earl of Selkirk, and James, Earl of Hopetoun). In 1794 he was again elected. Meanwhile, in 1792, he had succeeded, on the death of his grand-uncle (of the half-blood), the lunatic George Johnstone, third marquis of Annandale, to the earldoms of Annandale and Hartfell, in addition to very large estates in Scotland. But he never assumed the titles, merely adding Johnstone to his family name. In 1793 he raised and commanded the corps of Hopetoun fencibles, and in recognition of this service he was, on 3 Feb. 1809, created Baron Hopetoun in the peerage of the United Kingdom. For many years he was lord-lieutenant of Linlithgowshire and hereditary keeper of the castle of Lochmaben. Hope died at Hopetoun House, Linlithgowshire, on 29 May 1816, and, in default of male issue of his own, was succeeded in the barony as well as the earldom by his half-brother, Sir John Hope of Rankeillour [q. v.], then Lord Niddry, the barony having been limited to the heirs male of the second Earl of Hopetoun. Hope married, 25 Aug. 1766, Elizabeth Carnegie (d. 1793), daughter of George, sixth earl of Northesk, by whom he had six daughters, of whom Anne Johnstone (d. 1818) married in 1792 Admiral Sir William Johnstone Hope [q. v.]; Georgiana (d. 1797), married in 1793 the Hon. Andrew Cochrane; and Jemima, married in 1803 Rear-admiral Sir George Johnstone Hope.

[Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, ed. Wood, i. 750; Burke's Peerage; Courthope's Historic Peerage; Playfair's Brit. Fam. Antiq. iii. 461; Gent. Mag. 1816, i. 569; Book of Dignities; Anderson's Scottish Nation, ii. 494.]

W. A. J. A.

HOPE, JAMES (1801–1841), physician, was born at Stockport in Cheshire 23 Feb. 1801. His father, Thomas, belonged to a branch of the Scottish Hopes, long settled in Lancashire. Having realised a handsome fortune as a merchant and manufacturer, he retired from business and settled at Prestbury Hall, near Macclesfield in Cheshire. After four years (1815–18) at the Macclesfield grammar school, James resided for about eighteen months at Oxford, where his elder brother was then an undergraduate, but never became a member of the university. In October 1820 he went as a medical student to Edinburgh, where he highly distinguished himself, and passed five years. The subject of his inaugural medical dissertation (August 1825) was aneurism of the aorta, and he then began to collect drawings (executed by himself) of pathological specimens coming under his notice. He was one of the presidents of the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh, he held the offices of house-physician and house-surgeon at the Royal Infirmary, and he and his intimate friend Dr. George Julius passed the two best examinations of the year. On leaving Edinburgh in December 1825 he became a student at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, and in the spring of 1826 obtained the diploma of the Royal College of Surgeons. Though he restricted himself rigidly in after life to the practice of medicine, his knowledge of surgery gave him a confidence which he could never otherwise have enjoyed. In the summer of the same year he left England for the continent, and stayed a year at Paris as one of the clinical clerks of M. Chomel at La Charité. He then visited Switzerland, Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands, and reached England in June 1828. In September he passed the College of Physicians as a licentiate. With a fixed determination to become one of the chief London physicians, he established himself in December 1828 in Lower Seymour Street, Portman Square, and entered himself as a pupil at St. George's Hospital in order to attend the physicians in their visits to the wards. There he was one of the early champions of auscultation. He had had opportunities of testing the value of Laennec's discovery while in Paris, and he was himself especially fitted for practising it with advantage, having very acute hearing and a very delicate ear for musical tones and rhythm. In 1829 he began to publish a series of papers prepara-