was represented in 1788 and won for the author the praise of La Harpe. Andrieux hailed the beginning of the Revolution with delight and received a place under the new government, but at the beginning of the Terror he retreated to Mévoisins, the patrimony of his friend Collin d’Harleville. Under the Convention he was made civil judge in the Court of Cassation, and was one of the original members of the Institute. A moderate statesman, he was elected secretary and finally president of the Tribunat, but with other of his colleagues he was expelled for his irreconcilable attitude towards the establishment of the civil code. On his retirement he again turned to write for the stage, producing Le Trésor and Molière avec ses amis in 1804. He became librarian to Joseph Bonaparte and to the Senate, was professor of grammar and literature at the École Polytechnique and eventually at the Collège de France. As a professor he was extraordinarily successful, and his lectures, which have unhappily not been preserved, attracted mature men as well as the ordinary students. He was rigidly classical in his tastes, and an ardent opponent of romanticism, which tended in his opinion to the subversion of morals. Among his other plays are La Comédienne (1816), one of his best comedies, and a tragedy, Lucius Junius Brutus (1830). Andrieux was the author of some excellent stories and fables: La Promenade de Fénelon, Le Bulle d’Alexandre VI. and the Meunier de Saint-Souci. In 1829 he became perpetual secretary to the Academy, and in fulfilment of his functions he worked hard at the completion of the Dictionary. He died on the 9th of May 1833 in Paris.
ANDRISCUS, often called the “pseudo-Philip,” a fuller of Adramyttium, who claimed to be a son of Perseus, last king of Macedonia. He occupied the throne for a year (149–148 B.C.). Unable to obtain a following in Macedonia, he applied to Demetrius Soter of Syria, who handed him over to the Romans. He contrived, however, to escape; reappeared in Macedonia with a large body of Thracians; and, having completely defeated the praetor Publius Juventius (149), he assumed the title of king. His conquest of Thessaly and alliance with Carthage made the situation dangerous. Eventually he was defeated by Q. Caecilius Metellus (148), and fled to Thrace, whose prince gave him up to Rome. He figured in the triumph of Metellus (146), who received the title of “Macedonicus” for his victory. Andriscus's brief reign was marked by cruelty and extortion. After this Macedonia was formally reduced to a province.
ANDROCLUS, a Roman slave who lived about the time of Tiberius. He is the hero of a story told by Aulus Gellius (v. 14), which states that Androclus had taken refuge from the cruelties of his master in a cave in Africa, when a lion entered the cave and showed him his swollen paw, from which Androclus extracted a large thorn. The grateful animal subsequently recognized him when he had been captured and thrown to the wild beasts in the circus, and, instead of attacking him, began to caress him (Aelian, De Nat. An. vii. 48).
ANDROMACHE, in Greek legend, the daughter of Eëtion, prince of Thebe in Mysia, and wife of Hector. Her father and seven brothers fell by the hands of Achilles when their town was taken by him; her mother, ransomed at a high price, was slain by Artemis (Iliad, vi. 414). During the Trojan War her husband was slain by Achilles, and after the capture of the city her son Astyanax (or Scamandrius) was hurled from the battlements (Eurip. Troades. 720). When the captives were allotted, Andromache fell to Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus), the son of Achilles, whom she accompanied to Epirus, and to whom she bore three sons. When Neoptolemus was slain at Delphi, he left his wife and kingdom to Helenus, the brother of Hector (Virgil, Aen. iii. 294). After the death of her third husband, Andromache returned to Asia Minor with her youngest son Pergamus, who there founded a town named after himself. Andromache is one of the finest characters in Homer, distinguished by her affection for her husband and child, her misfortunes and the resignation with which she endures them. The death of Astyanax, and the farewell scene between Andromache and Hector (Iliad, vi. 323), were represented in ancient works of art, while Andromache herself is the subject of tragedies by Euripides and Racine.
ANDROMEDA, in Greek legend, the daughter of Cepheus and Cassiopeia (Cassiope, Cassiepeia), king and queen of the Ethiopians. Cassiopeia, having boasted herself equal in beauty to the Nereïds, drew down the vengeance of Poseidon, who sent an inundation on the land and a sea-monster which destroyed man and beast. The oracle of Ammon having announced that no relief would be found until the king exposed his daughter Andromeda to the monster, she was fastened to a rock on the shore. Here Perseus, returning from having slain the Gorgon, found her, slew the monster, set her free, and married her in spite of Phineus, to whom she had before been promised. At the wedding a quarrel took place between the rivals, and Phineus was turned to stone by the sight of the Gorgon’s head (Ovid, Metam. v. 1). Andromeda followed her husband to Tiryns in Argos, and became the ancestress of the family of the Perseidae. After her death she was placed by Athena amongst the constellations in the northern sky, near Perseus and Cassiopeia. Sophocles and Euripides (and in modern times Corneille) made the story the subject of tragedies, and its incidents were represented in numerous ancient works of art.
The Greeks personified the constellation Andromeda as a woman with her arms extended and chained. Its Latin names are Persea, Mulier catenata (“chained woman”), Virgo devota, &c.; the Arabians replaced the woman by a seal; Wilhelm Schickard (1592–1635) named the constellation “Abigail”; Julius Schiller assigned to it the figure of a sepulchre, naming it the “Holy Sepulchre.” In 1786 Johann Elert Bode formed a new constellation, named the “Honours of Frederick,” after his patron Frederick II., out of certain stars situated in the arm of Ptolemy’s Andromeda; this innovation found little favour and is now discarded.
Twenty-three stars are catalogued by Ptolemy and Tycho Brahe; Hevelius increased this number to forty-seven, while Flamsteed gave sixty-six. The most brilliant stars are α Andromedae or “Andromeda’s head,” and β Andromedae in the girdle (Arabic mirach or mizar), both of the second magnitude; γ Andromedae in the foot (alamak or alhames), of the third magnitude. Scientific interest centres mainly on the following:—the nebula in Andromeda, one of the finest in the sky (see Nebula); γ Andromedae, the finest binary in the heavens, made up of a yellow star of magnitude 2½, and a blue-green of magnitude 5½, the latter being itself binary; Nova Andromedae, a “new” star, discovered in the nebula by C. E. A. Hartwig in 1885, and subsequently spectroscopically examined by many observers; R Andromedae, a regularly variable star; and the Andromedids, a meteoric swarm, associated with Biela’s comet, and having their radiant in this constellation (see Meteor).
ANDRON (Gr. ἀνδρών), that part of a Greek house which was reserved for men, as distinguished from the gynaeceum (γυναικειον), the women’s quarters.
ANDRONICUS I. (Comnenus), emperor of the East, son of Isaac, and grandson of Alexius I. Comnenus, was born about the beginning of the 12th century. He was endowed by nature with the most remarkable gifts both of mind and body. He was handsome and eloquent, but licentious; and at the same time active, hardy, courageous, a great general and an able politician. His early years were spent in alternate pleasure and military service. In 1141 he was taken captive by the Turks (Seljuks) and remained in their hands for a year. On being ransomed he went to Constantinople, where was held the court of his cousin, the emperor Manuel, with whom he was a great favourite. Here the charms of his niece, the princess Eudoxia, attracted him. She became his mistress, while her sister Theodora stood in a similar relation to the emperor Manuel. In 1152, accompanied by Eudoxia, he set out for an important command in Cilicia. Failing in his principal enterprise, an attack upon Mopsuestia, he returned, but was