Page:EB1911 - Volume 03.djvu/525

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

Koningsplein is a large open square surrounded by mansions of the wealthier classes. Noordwijk is principally inhabited by lesser merchants and subordinate officials. There is an orphan asylum in the district of Parapatna. Batavia has various educational and scientific institutions of note. In 1851 the government founded a medical school for Javanese, and in 1860 the “Gymnasium William III.” in which a comprehensive education is bestowed. A society of arts and sciences (which possesses an excellent museum) was established in 1778, a royal physical society in 1850, and a society for the promotion of industry and agriculture in 1853. In addition to the Transactions of these societies—many of which contain valuable contributions to their respective departments in their relation to the East Indies—a considerable number of publications are issued in Batavia. Among miscellaneous buildings of importance may be mentioned the public hall known as the Harmonie, the theatre, club-house and several fine hotels.

The population of Batavia is varied, the Dutch residents being a comparatively small class, and greatly intermixed with Portuguese and Malays. Here are found members of the different Indian nations, originally slaves; Arabs, who are principally engaged in navigation, but also trade in gold and precious stones; Javanese, who are cultivators; and Malays, chiefly boatmen and sailors, and adherents of Mahommedanism. The Chinese are both numerous and industrious. They were long greatly oppressed by the Dutch government, and in 1740 they were massacred to the number of 12,000.

Batavia Bay is rendered secure by a number of islands at its mouth, but grows very shallow towards the shore. The construction of the new harbour at Tanjong Priok, to the east of the old one, was therefore of the first importance. The works, begun in 1877 and completed in 1886, connect the town with Tanjong (“cape”) Priok by a canal, and include an outer port formed by two breakwaters, 6072 ft. long, with a width at entrance of 408 ft. and a depth of 27 ft. throughout. The inner port has 3282 ft. of quayage; its length is 3609 ft., breadth 573 ft. and depth 24 ft. There is also a coal dock, and the port has railway and roadway connexion with Batavia. The river Jilivong is navigable 2 m. inland for vessels of 30 or 40 tons, but the entrance is narrow, and requires continual attention to keep it open.

The exports from Batavia to the other islands of the archipelago, and to the ports in the Malay Peninsula, are rice, sago, coffee, sugar, salt, oil, tobacco, teak timber and planks, Java cloths, brass wares, &c., and European, Indian and Chinese goods. The produce of the Eastern Islands is also collected at its ports for re-exportation to India, China and Europe—namely, gold-dust, diamonds, camphor, benzoin and other drugs; edible bird-nests, trepang, rattans, beeswax, tortoise-shell, and dyeing woods from Borneo and Sumatra; tin from Banka; spices from the Moluccas; fine cloths from Celebes and Bali; and pepper from Sumatra. From Bengal are imported opium, drugs and cloths; from China, teas, raw silk, silk piece-goods, coarse China wares, paper, and innumerable smaller articles for the Chinese settlers. The tonnage of vessels clearing from Batavia to countries beyond the archipelago had increased from 879,000 tons in 1887 to nearly 1,500,000 tons by the end of the century. The old and new towns are connected by steam tramways. The Batavia-Buitenzorg railway passes the new town, thus connecting it with the main railway which crosses the island from west to east.

Almost the only manufactures of any importance are the distillation of arrack, which is principally carried on by Chinese, the burning of lime and bricks, and the making of pottery. The principal establishment for monetary transactions is the Java Bank, established in 1828 with a capital of £500,000.

Batavia owes its origin to the Dutch governor-general Pieter Both, who in 1610 established a factory at Jacatra (which had been built on the ruins of the old Javanese town of Sunda Calappa), and to his successor, Jan Pieters Coen, who in 1619 founded in its stead the present city, which soon acquired a flourishing trade and increased in importance. In 1699 Batavia was visited by a terrible earthquake, and the streams were choked by the mud from the volcano of Gunong Salak; they overflowed the surrounding country and made it a swamp, by which the climate was so affected that the city became notorious for its unhealthiness, and was in great danger of being altogether abandoned. In the twenty-two years from 1730 to 1752, 1,100,000 deaths are said to have been recorded. General Daendels, who was governor from 1808 to 1811, caused the ramparts of the town to be demolished, and began to form the nucleus of a new city at Weltevreden. By 1816 nearly all the Europeans had left the old town. In 1811 a British armament was sent against the Dutch settlements in Java, which had been incorporated by France, and to this force Batavia surrendered on the 8th of August. It was restored, however, to the Dutch by the treaty of 1814.

BATAVIA, a village and the county-seat of Genesee county, New York, U.S.A., about 36 m. N.E. of Buffalo, on the Tonawanda Creek. Pop. (1890) 7221; (1900) 9180, of whom 1527 were foreign-born; (1910), 11,613. Batavia is served by the New York Central & Hudson River, the Erie, and the Lehigh Valley railways. It is the seat of the New York State School for the Blind, and of St Joseph’s Academy (Roman Catholic), and has a historical museum, housed in the Old Holland Land Office (1804), containing a large collection of relics of the early days of New York, and a memorial library erected in 1889 in memory of a son by Mary E. Richmond, the widow of Dean Richmond; the building contained in 1908 more than 14,000 volumes. The public schools are excellent; in them in 1898 Superintendent John Kennedy (b. 1846) introduced the method of individual instruction now known as the “Batavia scheme,” under which in rooms of more than fifty pupils there is, besides the class teacher, an “individual” teacher who helps backward children in their studies. Among Batavia’s manufactures are harvesters, ploughs, threshers and other agricultural implements, firearms, rubber tires, shoes, shell goods, paper-boxes and inside woodwork. In 1905 the city’s factory products were valued at $3,589,406, an increase of 39.5% over their value in 1900. Batavia was laid out in 1801 by Joseph Ellicott (1760-1826), the engineer who had been engaged in surveying the land known as the “Holland Purchase,” of which Batavia was a part. The village was incorporated in 1823. Here lived William Morgan, whose supposed murder (1826) by members of the Masonic order led to the organization of the Anti-Masonic party. Batavia was the home during his last years of Dean Richmond (1804-1866), a capitalist, a successful shipper and wholesaler of farm produce, vice-president (1853-1864) and president (1864-1866) of the New York Central railway, and a prominent leader of the Democratic party in New York state.

See O. Turner, History of the Holland Purchase (Buffalo, 1850).

BATEMAN, HEZEKIAH LINTHICUM (1812-1875), American actor and manager, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on the 6th of December 1812. He was intended for an engineer, but in 1832 became an actor, playing with Ellen Tree (afterwards Mrs Charles Kean) in juvenile leads. In 1855 he was manager of the St Louis theatre for a few years and in 1859 moved to New York. In 1866 he was manager for his daughter Kate, and in 1871 returned to London, where he took the Lyceum theatre. Here he engaged Henry Irving, presenting him first in The Bells, with great success. He died on the 22nd of March 1875.

His wife, Sidney Frances (1823-1881), daughter of Joseph Cowell, an English actor who had settled in America, was also an actress and the author of several popular plays, in one of which, Self (1857), she and her husband made a great success. After her husband’s death Mrs Bateman continued to manage the Lyceum till 1875. She later took the Sadler’s Wells theatre, which she managed until her death on the 13th of January 1881. She was the first to bring to England an entire American company with an American play, Joaquin Miller’s The Danites.

Mr and Mrs Bateman had eight children, three of the four daughters being educated for the stage. The two oldest, Kate Josephine (b. 1842), and Ellen (b. 1845), known as the “Bateman children,” began their theatrical career at an early age. In 1862