Page:EB1911 - Volume 17.djvu/668

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of Jutland and of De Dartske Oer, on a scale of 1:40,000, the former in 131 sheets, since 1870, the latter, on the same scale, in Q4 sheets, since 1890, and still in progress, and a general staff map on a scale of 1:100,000, in 68 sheets, since 1890. Maps of the Faroer and of Iceland have likewise been issued. Modern surveys in Sweden date from the organization of a corps of “ Landematare, ” known since 1874 as a topographical Scandl- department of the general staff. The maps issued ""'“° by this authority include one of southern Sweden, 1:100,000, another of northern Sweden, 1:200,000, and a general map on a scale of 1:1, 000,000. In Norway a geographical survey (Opmaaling) has been in progress since 1783, but the topographical map of the kingdom on a scale of 1:100, oo0 in 340 sheets, has not yet been completed.

Of Russia in Europe only the more densely peopled governments have been surveyed, since 1816, in the manner of other RHSSLL European countries, while for most regions there are only so-called “military surveys.” The most readily available map of the whole country is the 10-verst map (1:420,000), known as General ]. A. Strelbitzki's, and published 1865-1880. A topographic map (1:126,000) embracing the whole of western Russia, with Poland and the country of the Don Cossacks, is designed to be extended over the whole empire. Certain governments-Moscow, Kief, Volhynia, Bessarabia, the Crimea, &c.-have been published on a scale of 1:24,000, while Finland, as far as 61° N., was re-surveyed in 1870-1895, and a map on a scale of 1:42,000 is approaching completion.

Surveys in Asiatic Russia are conducted by the topographical departments organized at Orenburg, Tashkent, Omsk, Irkutsk and Tifiis. To the latter we are indebted for a valuable map of Caucasia, 1:210,000, which since the first publication (1863-188 5) has undergone careful revision. The Siberian departments have published a number of maps on a scale of 1:420,000. In addition to these the survey for the Trans-Siberian railway has been published on a scale of 1:630,000, as also maps of the Russo-Chinese frontier districts, 1:210,000 and 1:1,168,000. A map of Asiatic Russia, 1:420,000, by Bolshef, in 192 sheets, is in course of publication. w

Passing to southern Europe we find that Portugal has completed a Charta chorographica (1:100,000) since 1856. In Portugal Spain a plane-table survey on a scale of 1:20,000 mdspaim has been in progress since 1870, but of the map of Spain in 1078 sheets on a scale of 1:50,000 only 150 had been issued by the depésito de la guerra up to 1910. Meanwhile reference may be made to B. F. Coello's Atlas de la Espaita (1848-1890), the maps of which are on a scale of 1:200,000.

In Italy Tavulette rilevata on a scale of 1: 25,000 or 1: 50,000, with contours, based on surveys made 1862-1890, are being mba published, and a Carta del regrw d'Italia, 1:100,000, is practically complete. There are a Carta idrologica and a Carta geologic on the same scale, and a Carta orograjica on a scale of 1: 500,000.

Greece is still dependent upon foreigners for its maps, among which the Carte de Gréce (1:200,000) from rapid surveys made G, , ewe -by General Palet in 1828, was published in a new edition in 1880. A similar map, mainly based upon surveys made by Austrian officers and revised by H. Kiepert (1: 300,000), was published by the Military Geographical Institute of Vienna in 1885. Far superior to these maps is the Karte 'von Attika (1:100,000 and 1:25,000) based upon careful surveys made by Prussian officers and published by E. Curtius and ]. H. Kaupert on behalf of the German Archaeological Institute in Athens (1878), or A. Philippson's map of the Peloponnese (1:300,000; 1901).

For maps of the Balkan Peninsula we are still largely indebted to the rapid surveys carried on by Austrian and Russian officers. The Austrian map of central Europe ggi: embraces the whole of the Balkan Peninsula on a scale of 1:200,000; the Russian surveys (1877-1879) are embodied in a map of the eastern part of the Balkan on a scale 1: 126,000, and a map of Bulgaria and southern Rumelia, on a scale 1:200,000, both published in 1883. A map of Turkey in Europe, scale 1:210,000, was published by the Turkish general staff (1899), and another map, scale 1:250,000, by the intelligence division of the British war office is in progress since 1906. Bosnia and Herzegovina are now included with the surveys of the Austrian Empire, the kingdom of Servia has been surveyed (1880-ISQI) and the results published on a scale of 1:7 5,000; in eastern Rumania surveys have been in progress since 1874 and the results have been published on a scale of 1:50,000; a general map of the entire kingdom, scale 1:200,000, was published in 1906-1907; a map of Montenegro (r:75, o0o), based on surveys by Austrian and Russian officers, was published at Vienna in 1894. In Asiatic Turkey several districts of historical interest have been surveyed, and surveys have likewise been made in the interest of railways, or by boundary commis- ASM sions, but there is no such thing as a general survey carried on under the direction of government. We are thus, to a large extent, still dependent upon compilations, such as R. Kiepert's Asia Minor (1:400,000; 1904-1908), a map of eastern Turkey in Asia, Syria and western Persia (1:2,000,000; 1910), published by the Royal Geographical Society, or a Russian general map (1:630,000, published 1880-1885). Among maps based upon actual surveys those of Palestine, by Lieutenant G. R. Conder and H. H. (afterwards Lord) Kitchener (1:63,360, 1880), of the Sinai Peninsula by Sir C. W. Wilson and H. S. Palmer (1:126,730, 1870), of Arabia Petraea by Dr A. Musil (1:300, o00, 1907) or of the Aden territory (1905) are among the more interesting. Of Cyprus an excellent map from surveys by Major (Lord) H. H. Kitchener was published in 1884 (1:63,360).

In the case of Persia and Afghanistan we are still dependent upon compilations such as a Russian staff map (1:840, o0o, published in 1886), Colonel Sir T. H. H0ldich's map of Persia (1:1,014, oo0, Simla, 1897-1899), or a smaller map (1:2,028,000 and 1:4,056, o0o), published by the geographical division of the general staff. The settlement of boundaries in northern Afghanistan (1883) and in Seistan (1870) has necessitated surveys of some interest.

A trigonometrical survey of British India was begun in 1800 and the country can now boast of a survey which in most respects is equal to those of most European states. The surveys are made on scales varying according to the necessities of the case or the nature of the country, and they have been extended since 1862 beyond the boundaries of India proper. Revenue surveys for land settlement are published on a scale of IQ 4000, but the usual scale for topographical maps is 1:63,360. An Indian Atlas, on a scale of 1: 2 5 5,660, includes also Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula, but although begun so long ago as 1827 many of its sheets are unpublished. There are in addition an official map of India (1:1,000,000), the first edition of which was published in 1903, as also maps of the great provinces of India, including Burma, all on a scale of 1:2,827,520, and a. variety of physical and statistical maps. Ceylon and the Straits Settlements, with the Federal Malay States, have their own surveyors-general. The British North Borneo Company published a Map of British North Borneo, on a scale of 1:633,600 (1905)-

In Siam a regular survey was organized by Mr J. McCarthy (1881-1883), a former official of the Indian survey, which did good work in Connexion with the determination of the Franco-Siamese frontier (1906). The surveys are made on the scales of 124000, 1:31,680 and 1:63,360.

In French Indo-China surveys have been in progress since 1881. The Bureau of the Indo-Chinese general staff, has published a map of Indo-China, including Cambodia, in 45 sheets (1:200,000, 1895), while to the service géographique de l'Indo-Chine, organized in 1899, We owe a Carte de l'Indo-Chine (1: 500,000) .

For China. we are still largely dependent upon careful compilations like Baron F. von Richthofen's Atlas von China (1:750,000,