Page:EB1911 - Volume 22.djvu/208

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194
POST, AND POSTAL SERVICE


The comparative postal statistics for all France during the years 1900 and 1905 stands thus:—

1900. 1905.
No. No.
Letters . . . . . 980,629,000 1,213,090,000
Post-cards 62,591,000 450,889,000
Newspapers, printed matter,
samples, circulars, &c. .
1,390,246,000 1,441,713,000
Value of money French francs 1,422,736,000 1,834,360,000
orders Internatl. 56,210,000 73,229,000
Value of postal orders 40,688,000 54,582,000
Receipts
£
209,982,000
8,399,000
261,454,000
10,458,000

The savings banks system of France, so far as it is connected with the postal service, dates only from 1875, and began then (at first) simply by the use of post offices as agencies and feeders for the pre-existing banks. Prior to the postal connexion the aggregate of the deposits stood at £22,920,000. In 1877 it reached £32,000,000. Postal savings banks, strictly so called, began only during the year 1881. At the close of 1882 they had 210,712 depositors, with an aggregate deposit of £1,872,938 sterling; in 1905 they had 12,134,523 depositors, with an aggregate deposit of £229,094,155.

The union of the telegraph with the post office dates only from 1878. The following table gives the figures for 1900 and 1905:—

1900. 1905.
Length of line. kilometres
miles
117,559
73,004
129,826
80,622
Length of wire kilometres
miles .
388,824
241,453
418,331
259,784
Total gross receipts francs. . 43,977,000
1,759,000
46,490,000
2,860,000
Number of messages forwarded:
Home service. ... . 36,723,000 39,433,000
International 3,374,000 3,686,000
Amount of International tele-
graphic money orders:
 From foreign countries to
  France. (Total francs)
6,145,455 10,239,546
 From France to foreign
  countries.. (Total francs)
6,124,913 4,754,960

The postal telephonic system began in 1879. The following table gives the figures for 1901 and 1905:—

1901. 1905.
Length of line kilometres
miles
30,142
18,718
46,992
29,182
Length of wire kilometres
miles
453,287
281,491
498,389
309,500
Messages 175,340,000 232,727,645
Receipts . francs
£
17,518,000
701,000
23,495,000
940,000

Bibliography..—P. d’Alméras, Réglement sur le port des lettres (1627); Le Quien de la Neufville, Usages des postes (1730); Rowland Hill, Report to the Chancellor of the Exchequer on the French Post Office (1837); Annuaire des postes (from 1850-); M. du Camp, “De L’administration . . . et de l’hôtel des postes,” in Revue des deux mondes (1865), 3rd series; Revue des postes et télégraphes (pub. at various periods); A. de Rothschild, Histoire de la poste-lux-lettres (1875); “Entwickelung des Post- u. Telegraphenwesens in Frankreich, " in Archiv f. Post. u. Telegraphie (1882); “Die französischen Postsparkassen, " and other articles, in L’Union postale (Berne).

Austria-Hungary

The Austrian postal system is among the oldest on record. Vienna possessed a local letter post and a parcel post, on the plan of prepayment, as early as May 1772, at which date no city in Germany possessed the like. This local post was established by a Frenchman (M. Hardy) and managed by a Dutchman (Schooten).[1] Thirteen years after its organization it became merged in the imperial post. The separate postal organizations of the empire (Austria) and of the kingdom (Hungary) date from 1867. In Austria the post office and the telegraph office are placed under the control of the minister of commerce, in Hungary under that of the minister of public works. The following table gives the figures for 1900 and 1904:—

Austria

1900. 1904.
Post offices No. 6,895  8,327 
Letters and post-cards ,, 1,193,418,000 1,421,107,000
Newspapers „ 144,986,000
Packet post :
Ordinary packets. kilogs. 37,522,000 44,624,000
Registered packets and letters kronen
£
8,043,570,000
335,148,000
8,323,179,000
346,799,000
Receipts. kronen
£
107,718,000
4488,000
123,919,000
5,163,000
Expenses kronen
£
98,412,000
4,200,000
121,749,000
5,073,000

Hungary

1900. 1904.
Post offices. No. 4,923  5,097 
Letters, newspapers, &c. „ 487,670,000 584,081,000
Packet post :
Ordinary packets . . „ 17,730,000 21,367,000
Packets with 6 256 900 000 4,936,403,000
Glared value and
money letters
260,704,000 205,683,000
Reimbursements and korona 1,095,591,000 1,253,440,000
money orders £ 45,649,000 52,226,000
Postal order korona
£
27,470,000
1,145,000
30,397,000
1,266,000
Receipt korona
£
47,103,000
1,962,000
57,067,000
2,378,000
Expenses korona
£
39,912,000
1,663,000
44,560,000
1,857,000

German Empire

The Prussian postal system developed mainly by the ability and energy of Dr Stephan, to whom the organization of the International Postal Union[2] was so largely indebted, into the admirably organized post and telegraph office of the empire began with the Great Elector, and with the establishment in 1646 of a Government post from Cleves to Memel. Frederick, II. largely extended it, and by his successor the laws relating to it were consolidated. In Strasburg a messenger code existed as early as 1443. A postal service was organized at Nuremberg in 1570. In 1803 the rights in the indemnity-lands (Entschädigungsländer) of the counts of Taxis as hereditary imperial postmasters were abolished. The first mail steam packet was built in 1821; the first transmission of mails by, railway was in 1847; the beginning of the postal administration of the telegraphs was in 1849; and, by the treaty of postal union with Austria, not only was the basis of the existing system of the posts and telegraphs of Germany fully laid, but the germ was virtually set of the International Postal Union. That treaty was made for ten years on the 6th of April 1850, and was immediately accepted by Bavaria. It came into full operation on the ISL of July following, and then included Saxony, Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Holstein. Other German states followed; and the treaty was renewed in August 1860. The following table gives figures for 1900 and 1905:—

1900. 1905.
Post offices. . . No. 32,135 33,105
Letters received. „ 2,893,555,000 3,855,369,000
Letters and parcels
received (value .
20,508,000 10,518,000
declared) 1000 marks 15,984,425 16,215,800
Parcels received (value not declared) No. 153,985,000 186,038,000
Postal orders re-No. 126,217,209 162,800,261
ceived. .. 1000 marks 7,868,860 9,807,934
  1. Loeper, “Organisation des postes de ville,” in L’Union postale vii. 1 seq.
  2. The International Postal Union was founded at Berne in 1874. All the countries of the world belong to it, with the exception of Afghanistan, Baluchistan, China, Abyssinia and Morocco. Congresses have been held at Paris (1878), Lisbon (1885), Vienna (1891), Washington (1897) and Rome (1906).