Hervast southern provinces are, of course, the origin of this produce, which is collected by dealers from the farmers, the price realized by the latter for eggs being in summer sometimes less than a rouble per hundred. The government has shown considerable interest in this growing industry in several ways, and produce is carried at almost incredibly low rates on the State railways; but the vast distances involved must always confine Russian produce to the supply of the cheaper class of demand in western Europe. (L. Wr.)
POUNCE. (1) To drop upon and seize: properly said of a bird of prey seizing its victim in its claws. The substantive “ pounce,” from which the verb is formed, was the technical name in falconry for the claws on the three front toes of a hawk's claws, and so The Book of St Albans (1486) “ Fryst the grete Clees behynde . . . ye shall call from talons .... The Clees within the, fote ye shall call of right her Pownces." (2) To decorate metal by driving or punching a design into it from the under or back part of the surface, also to decorate cloth or other fabrics by punching or “ pinking ” holes, scalloping the edges, &c. Both these words seem to be variants of “ punch ” (q.v.), which comes ultimately from the Latin pungere, punctum, to prick, pierce. From them must be distinguished (3) “ pounce,” a preparation of powdered cuttle-fish or sandarach, the resin of the sandarach-tree, formerly used for drying ink on the roughened surface of vellum, parchment or paper where an erasure had been made; later, the word was also given to the black sand used generally as a dusting-powder for drying ink before the invention of blotting-paper. The “ pounce-box ” or “ pouncet-box ” was a familiar object on all writing-tables till that time. A similar box with pierced lid for holding perfumes or aromatic vinegar also bore the name. This word is formed from the Lat. pumex, pumice-stone, which was employed for securing a smooth surface on vellum, parchment, &c. The term “ pounce ” is also applied to a finely powdered gum of the juniper or to pipe-clay darkened with charcoal used in transferring designs to fabrics, wall-surfaces, &c., through holes pricked in the original drawing.
POUND (1) An enclosure in which cattle or other animals are retained until redeemed by the owners, or when taken in distrait until replevised, such retention being in the nature of a pledge or security to compel satisfaction for debt or damage done. Animals may be seized and impounded when (1) distrained for rent; (2) damage feasant, i.e. doing harm on the land of the person seizing; (3) straying; (4) taken under legal process. A pound belongs to the township or village or manor where it is situated. The pound-keeper is obliged to receive everything offered to his custody and is not answerable if the thing offered be illegally impounded.
By a statute of 1554, no distress of cattle can be driven out of the hundred Where taken unless to a pound in the same county, within three miles of the place of seizure. This statute also fixes 4d. as the fee for impounding a distress. Where cattle are impounded the impound er is bound to supply them with sufficient food and water (Cruelty to Animals Acts 1849 and 1854); any person, moreover, is authorized to enter a place where animals are impounded without food and water more than twelve hours and supply them; and the cost of such food is to be paid by the owner of the animal before it is removed. A statute of 1690 gives treble damages and costs against persons guilty of pound breach; and by statute of 1843 (Pound Breach) persons releasing or attempting to release cattle impounded or damaging any pound are liable to a fine not exceeding £5, awardable to the person on whose behalf the cattle were distrained, with imprisonment with hard labour in default. In the old law books varieties of pounds—as a common pound, an open pound anti. a close pound—are enumerated. By the Distress for Rent Act 1737 any person dis training for rent may turn any part of the premises into a pound pro hac vice for securing the distress. Pounds are not now much used. (F. Wa.)
Pound (2)—(a) a measure of weight; (b) an English money of account. (a) The English standard unit of weight is the avoirdupois pound of 7000 grains. The earliest weight in the English system was the Saxon pound, subsequently known as the Tower pound, from the old mint pound kept in the Tower of London. The Tower pound weighed 5400 grains and this weight of silver was coined into 240 pence or 20 shillings, hence pound in sense (2) (a pound weight of silver). The pound troy, probably introduced from France, was in use as early as 1415 and was adopted as the legal standard for gold and silver in 1527. The act which abolished the Tower pound (18 Hen. VIII.: the “ pounde Troye which exceedeth the pounde Tower in weight iii quarters of the oz.”) substituted a pound of 5760 grains, at which the pound troy still remains. There was in use together with the pound troy, the merchant's pound, weighing 6750 grains, which was established about 1270 for all commodities except gold, silver and medicines, but it was generally superseded by the pound avoirdupois about 1330. There was also in use for a short time another merchant's pound, introduced from France and Germany; this pound weighed 7200 grains. The pound avoirdupois has remained in use continuously since the 14th century, although it may have varied slightly at different periods—the Elizabethan standard was probably 7002 grains. The standard pound troy, placed together with the standard yard in the custody of the clerk of the House of Commons by a resolution of the House of the 2nd of June 1758, was destroyed at, the burning of the houses of parliament in 1834. In 1838 a commission was appointed to consider the restoration of the standards, and in consequence of their report in 1841 the pound avoirdupois of 7000 grains was substituted for the pound troy as the standard. A new standard pound avoirdupois was made under the direction of a committee appointed in 1834 (which reported in 1854), by comparison with authenticated copies of the original standard (see Phil. Trans. 1856). This standard pound was legalized by an act of 1855 (18 & 19 Vict. c. 72). The standard avoirdupois pound is made of platinum, in the form of a cylinder nearly 1.35 in. high and 1.15 in. in diameter. It has a groove or channel round it to enable it to be lifted by means of an ivory fork (for illustration see Weights and Measures) and is marked “ P.S. 1844. 1 ℔.” P.S. meaning Parliamentary Standard. It is preserved at the Standards Office, in the custody of the Board of Trade. Copies were also deposited at the Houses of Parliament, the Royal Mint, the Royal Observatory and with the Royal Society.
See the Reports of the Standards Commission (6 parts, 1868–1873), especially 3rd report (on the abolition of troy weight) and 5th report (on the business of the Standards Dept. and the condition of the official standards and apparatus; description of the reverification of the various official standards, with diagrams). (b) The English monetary unit is the pound; it was originally a pound weight of silver (hence written £ for libra, Lat. pound weight), coined into twenty shillings, and is now represented by the gold sovereign (q.v.). The pound Scots was at one time of the same value as the English pound, but through gradual debasement of the coinage was reduced at the accession of James I. to about one-twelfth of the value of the English pound, and was divided into twenty shillings, each about the value of an English penny. The Egyptian pound, written £E, is a gold coin of 100 piastres, and was made the monetary unit of the country by a decree of the 14th of November 1885. Its weight is 8.544 grammes of gold 0.875 fine and its value in English standard gold is £1, os. 6¼d. The Turkish pound is written £T. The Turkish monetary system is dealt with at length under Turkey: Monetary System.
Valuable information from the historical point of view will be found in the Reports of the Standards Commission quoted above, and in H. W. Chisholm's On the Science of Weighing and Measuring (1877) and his Seventh Annual Report as warden of the standards
- Pound, in sense (1), is represented late in O.E. by the compounds pund-fold and pund-breche and by the derivative pyndan; to dam up, enclose, and for-pyndan, to shut out. The origin is unknown; “ pen,” an enclosure, is from a different root; “ pond ” a small pool of water, is a Middle English variant of “ pound.” In sense (2) the O.E. and M.E. pund, Du. pond, Ger. Pfund, are derivatives of the Lat. indeclinable substantive pondo—really an ablative singular as if from pondus (2nd declension)—a variant of pondus, ponderis, weight. The Lat. pondo is used as a shortened form of libra pondo, pound by weight. Finally is the verb “ to pound,” to crush by beating, to strike or beat; this in O.E. is punian, the d being excrescent as in “ sound," noise. The word is rare outside English; cf. Mod. Du. puin, rubbish, broken stone.