Paston Letters. Robert Poynings was implicated in Tack Cade's rebellion, and Edward was himself concerned in a Kentish rising against Richard III., which compelled him to escape to the Continent. He attached himself to Henry, earl of Richmond, afterwards King Henry VII., with whom he returned to England in 1485. By Henry VII. Poynings was employed in the wars on the Continent, and in I4Q3 he was made governor of Calais. In the following year he went to Ireland as lord deputy under the viceroyaity of Prince Henry, afterwards King Henry VIII. Poynings immediately set about Anglicizing the government of Ireland, which he -thoroughly accomplished, after inflicting punishment on, the powerful Irish clans who supported the imposture of Perkin Warbeck. He then summoned the celebrated parliament of Drogheda, which met in December 1494, and enacted the “Statutes of Drogheda,” famous in Irish history as “Poynings’s law” (see Statute: Ireland), which made the Irish legislature subordinate to, and completely dependent on, that of England, till its repeal in 1782. After defeating Perkin Warbeck at Waterford and driving him out of Ireland, Poynings returned to England in 1496, and was appointed warden of the Cinque Ports. He was employed both in military commands and in diplomatic missions abroad by Henry VII., and later by Henry VIII., his most important achievement being the successful negotiation of the “holy league” between England, Spain, the emperor, and the pope, in 1513. In 1520 he was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, in the arrangement of which he had taken an active part. He died in 1521. By his wife, Elizabeth Scot, Poynings left no surviving issue, and his estates passed through a collateral female line to the earl of Northumberland. He had several illegitimate children, one of whom, Thomas Poynings, was created Baron Poynings in 1545, but died in the same year without heirs.
See Sir Francis Bacon, The History of the Reign of King Henry VII. (London, 1641); Richard Bagwell, Ireland under the Tudors (2 vols., London, 1885); J. T. Gilbert, History of the Viceroys of Ireland (Dublin, 1865); J. A. Froude, The English in Ireland (3 vols., London, 1872–1874); Wilhelm Busch, England under the Tudors, ed. by James Gairdner (London, 1895).
POYNTER, SIR EDWARD JOHN, BART. (1836–), English painter, son of Ambrose Poynter, architect, was born in Paris on the 20th of March 1836. He pursued his art studies in England and in Paris (under Gleyre, 1856–1859), and exhibited his first picture at the Royal Academy in 1861. In 1869, after the exhibition of “Israel in Egypt” and “The Catapult,” he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, and in 1876, the year of “Atalanta's Race,” full Academician.
In the decorative arts he practised freely as a designer in fresco, mosaic, stained glass, pottery, tile-work and the like. While still quite a young man, he was encouraged by the architect William Burges, A.R.A., to design panels for his quaint Gothic cabinets; Messrs Powell obtained from him cartoons of designs for stained glass; for the decoration of Waltham Abbey church he was employed on a series of thirty important designs. Attracted by these, Dalziel Brothers commissioned a number of full-page drawings on wood for the illustration of their celebrated “Bible Gallery.” The cartoons for “St George” and “St David,” the mosaic panels now embellishing the outer lobby of the Palace of Westminster, were produced in 1870, and they were followed by the “Apelles” and “Phidias,” in the same method of reproduction, in the Victoria and Albert Museum; by the important series of frescoes in St Stephen's, Dulwich—scenes from the life of the saint; by the decoration of the grill room at the Museum at South Kensington, with the tiles en camaïeu—an achievement strikingly successful and pregnant with results. Always a lover of water-colour drawing and of the art of landscape painting, he was elected to the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours in 1883. In 1874 he designed the Ashantee medal; and in 1892, for the coinage of that year, the reverse of the shilling and florin, to the obverse of Mr Thomas Brock, R.A. When the art teaching centre of South Kensington was assuming the importance it has since attained, Mr Poynter was appointed director for art in the Science and Art Department, and principal of the National Art Training Schools (now the Royal College of Art), and by virtue of his vigorous and successful administration he invested his office with a distinction which, after his resignation in 1881, it soon notoriously lacked. The directorship of the National Gallery became vacant in 1894, and Poynter, profoundly versed in the works of the Old Masters, especially of the Italian schools, was appointed to the post, which he held for ten years. Under his rule the National Gallery of British Art, at Millbank, presented by the late Sir Henry Tate, became a department of the National Gallery, and thither were removed many pictures formerly in the British rooms at Trafalgar Square, as well as the Chantrey Collection from South Kensington, &c. One of the most important services by the director was the editing of the great Illustrated Catalogue of the National Gallery (1889–1900), in which every picture in the collection is reproduced-an unprecedented achievement in the annals of art-publishing.
On the death of Sir John Millais in 1896, Poynter was elected to the presidency of the Royal Academy, and was knighted. He was made a baronet in 1902.
Paintings.—Among Sir Edward Poynter's most notable pictures have been the following: “Israel in Egypt” (1867); “The Catapult” (1868); “Perseus and Andromeda” (1872); “Atalanta's Race” (1876); “The Fortune-Teller” (1877); “Nausicaa and Her Maidens” (1879); “Visit to Aesculapius” (1880), now in the Chantrey Collection in the Tate Gallery; “The ldes of March” (1883); “Diadumenè” (1885), now destroyed; “On the Terrace” (1889); “The Meeting of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba” (1891); “Horae Serenae” and “Idle Fears” (1894), and numerous portraits and water-colour drawings.
Lectures.—In his series of Slade Lectures, delivered from 1875 to 1879, and first published in 1879 (republished, with additions, in 1897), Sir Edward Poynter deals with the whole subject of art education, considering in turn Decorative Art, Old and New Art, Systems of Art Education, Hints on the Formation of a Style, Training of Art Students, The Study of Nature, The Value of Things, Objects of Study, Professor Ruskin on Michelangelo (hotly controversial in tone), Influence of Art in Social Life, and Ancient Decorative Art.
See also Cosmo Monkhouse, “Sir E. J. Poynter, P.R.A.: His Life and Work,” Art Annual (1897); M. H. Spielmann, “Sir E. J. Poynter, P.R.A., and his Studies,” The Magazine of Art (1897).
POZHAREVATS (also written Passarowitz and Požarevac), a town in Servia, situated in the Morava valley, 4 m. E. of the Morava river and 8 m. S. of the Danube. The station for steamers, Dubravitsa, with its custom-house, standing on the banks of the Danube, forms practically the harbour of Pozharevats. The town has no special industry, but is the principal market of a very extensive and fruitful plain between the rivers Morava, Mlava and Danube. It is the capital of a department bearing the same name, and the seat of a prefecture, a tribunal of justice, a college and several national or normal schools. It has a large modern penitentiary, with a department for political offenders and a prison for women. Two miles to the west, towards Morava, is situated Lubichevo, a model farm and stud belonging to the government. The shady park and flower gardens are a popular resort of the people of Pozharevats. The town is known in the history of international treaties as the place at which the famous peace of Passarowitz between Austria and Turkey was concluded in 1718. Pop. (1900), 12,957. Lignite is worked at Kostolats, 7 m. N. by E., and' the hills between Pozharevats and Kostolats show many traces of Roman mines. A number of coins, sarcophagi and inscriptions found in the neighbourhood are also Roman.
POZOBLANCO, a town of southern Spain in the province of Cordova, near the head-waters of the Guadamatillas and of other small sub-tributaries of the Guadiana. Pop. (1900), 12,792. Pozoblanco is one of the chief towns in the lowlands of Los Pedroches, which lie between the Sierra de la Alcudia on the north and the Sierra Morena on the south. Although there is no railway in the district, Pozoblanco has a thriving trade. Its fairs are famed for their exhibits of live stock and agricultural products. There are zinc and argentiferous lead mines in the neighbourhood, and manufactures of cloth and leather in the town itself.
POZZO DI BORGO, CARLO ANDREA, Count (1764–1842), Russian diplomatist, was born at Alata, near Ajaccio, of a noble Corsican family, on the 8th of March 1764, some four years before the cession of the island to France. He was educated