Page:EB1911 - Volume 22.djvu/280

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red clay. The soil is in general very fertile, the principal products being rice, maize and pulse (kachang) in the lower grounds, and cinchona, coffee and tea, as well as cocoa, tobacco and fibrous plants in the hills. The coffee cultivation has, however, considerably diminished. Forest culture, mat-making, weaving and fish-breeding are also practised, the last-named in the marshes after the rice harvest. The plantations are almost entirely owned by the government and Europeans, but the rice mills are in the hands of' Chinese. Irrigation works have been carried out in various parts. The principal towns are Bandung, the capital of the residency, Sukabumi, Chianjar, Sumedang, Chichalengka, Garut, Tasik Malaya and Marion ]aya, all with the exception of Sumedang connected by railway.

PREBENDARY (Lat. praebendo=give or grant, through Low Lat. praebenda), one who holds a prebend, namely an endowment in land, or pension in money, given to a cathedral or conventual church in praebendam—that is, for the maintenance of a secular priest or regular canon. In the early Church the title had a more general signification. The word praebenda originally signified the daily rations given to soldiers, whence it passed to indicate daily distributions of food and drink to monks, canons, &c. It became a frequent custom to grant such a prebend from the resources of a monastery to certain poor people or to the founder. Such persons were, literally, prebendaries. At a later date, when the custom in collegiate churches of living in common had become less general, a certain amount of the church revenue was divided among the clergy serving such a church, and each portion (no longer of meat or drink only) was called a prebend. The clergy of such churches were generally canons, and the titles canon and prebendary were, and are, sometimes used as synonymous. A member of such a college is a canon in virtue of the spiritual duties which he has to perform, and the assignation to him of a stall in choir and a place in chapter; he is a prebendary in virtue of his benefice. In the Roman Catholic Church the duties of a prebendary as such generally consist in his attendance at choral office in his church. In the Anglican Church he usually bears his part in the conducting of the ordinary church services, except when he has a vicar, as in the old cathedral foundations (see Cathedral). A prebendary may be either simple or a dignitary. In the former case he has no cure and no more than his revenue for his support; in the latter he has always a jurisdiction annexed. In the Anglican Church the bishop is of common right patron of all prebends, and if a prebend is in the gift of a lay patron he must present his candidate to the bishop who institutes as to other benefices. N0 person may hold more than one prebend in the same church; therefore, if a prebendary accepts a deanery in his church his prebend becomes void by cession. A prebend is practically a sinecure, and the holder has no cure of souls as such. He may, and often does, accept a parochial office or chaplaincy in addition.

In the middle ages there were many less regular kinds of prebends: e.g. praebenda doctoralis, with which teaching duties were connected, praebenda lectoralis, praebenda missae, to which the duty of saying a certain number of masses was attached, praebenda mortuaria, founded for the saying of masses for the dead. Chantries belonged to this class. All these prebends were generally assigned to special holders, but there were also praebendae currentes, which were not held by any persons in particular. Sometimes prebends were held by boys who sang in choir, praebendae pueriles. Occasionally the name of prebendary was applied to those servants in a monastery who attended to the food. In England the word prebendary was sometimes used as synonymous with prebend, as prebend was occasionally used for prebendary.

Du Cange,Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis, ed. L. Favre (Niort, 1883, &c.); Migne, Encyclopédie théologique, 1st series, vol. x. (s. Droit Canon);, Sir R. J. Phillimore, Ecclesiastical Law of the Church of England (2nd ed., 1895).  (E. O'N.) 

PRE-CAMBRIAN, in geology, the enormously long and indistinctly defined period of time anterior to the Cambrian period. In the restricted sense in which it is now often employed it embraces a period or group of periods subsequent to the Archean (q.v.) and anterior to the Cambrian, although some writers still prefer to include the former. The superior limit of pre-Cambrian rocks is fixed by the Olenellus fauna at the base of the Cambrian (some geologists speak of certain pre-Olenellus beds as eo-Cambrian); the lower limit has not yet been generally established, though it is sufficiently clear in certain regions. The rocks of this period are much more obviously of sedimentary origin than those of the Archean; they include conglomerates, sandstones, greywackes, quartzites, slates, limestones and dolomites, which appear to have been formed under conditions similar to those which obtained in later epochs. Although the sediments prevail, they are often very highly metamorphosed and distorted by crustal movements; igneous rocks occur in great bulk in some regions. Fossils are usually extremely rare and very ill-preserved, but indications of protozoa, coelenterates, echinoderms, molluscoids, mollusca, worms and arthropods have been distinguished. The name pre-Cambrian is the equivalent of the “ Algonkian ” of the United States Geological Survey, and of the “ Proterozoic " of other American authorities; the terms eozoic, archaeozoic, agnotozoic, cryptozoic, eparchaic and others have also been applied to the same period.

Three or more great stratigraphical breaks have been recognized within the system of pre-Cambrian rocks; but how far these breaks synchronize in widely separated regions where they are found is difficult to determine in the absence of good palaef ontological evidence.

The most striking development of pre-Cambrian rocks in Great Britain is the Torridonian (q.v.) group of the north-west highlands of Scotland, which lies with strong unconformability between the Lewisian gneiss and the basal quartzite of the Cambrian. The Eastern or Dalradian (q.v.) schists of Scotland and their equivalents in Ireland and Anglesey may be, in part at least, of the same age. In Shropshire, in the neighbourhood of the Welsh border, is the remnant of an ancient ridge now forming the Longmynd and the smaller hills to the west, Caer Caradoc, the Wrekin, and the Cardington Hills. The latter are built mainly of much altered porphyries and tuffs which C. Callaway named the Uriconian series; this series is clearly of pre-Cambrian age. The great mass of grits, flags and slates forming the Longmynd cannot yet be definitely assigned to this period, though they may be provisionally retained here under Callaway's name, Londmyndian. Probably contemporaneous with the Uriconian are the volcanic series of Barnt Green, Licky Hill and Caldecote. The micaceous schists of Rushton (Salop) may be placed here. In the Charnwood Forest a group of crystalline rocks, named Charnian by W. W. Watts, rises up in the form of small hills amid the surrounding Trias; they are classed as follows in descending order: The Brand series, including the slates of Swithland and Groby, quartzite and conglomerate and purple and green beds; the Maplewell series, including the olive horn stones of Bradgate, the Woodhouse beds, the slate-agglomerate of Roecliffe, the Beacon Hill horn stones and a felspathic agglomerate; and the Blackbrook series of grits and horn stones. The ancient volcanic rocks of St Davids, Pembrokeshire, were formerly regarded by H. Hicks as of pre-Cambrian age, in which he recognized a lower, “ Dimetian," a middle, “ Arvonian, " and an upper, “ Pebidian, " series. The pre-Cambrian age of these rocks was for a long time disputed, but J. F. N. Green (Q. J. Geol. Soc., 1908, 64, p. 363) made it clear that there is an Upper Pebidian (Rhyolitic group), and a Lower Pebidian (Trachytic group), and that Hicks's “ Dimetian," the St Davids granophyre, is a laccolitic mass intrusive in the Pebidian. Both the Pebidian volcanic rocks and the intruded granophyre are separated from the Cambrian by an unconformity.

In Finno-Scandinavia pre-Cambrian rocks are well developed. In the Scandinavian mountain ranges are the Seve and Sparagmite formations; the latter, a coarse-grained felspathic sandstone, is very similar to the Torridonian of Scotland; it occurs also in Enontekis in Finland. Next in descending order come the Jotnian sandstones (2000 metres), which retain ripple-marks; they are associated with conglomerates and slates and intrusive diabase and the Rapakiwi granite. The Jotnian group rests unconformable upon the Jatulian quartzites and schists, with slates, dolomite and carbonaceous beds (north of Lake Onega is a bed of anthracite 2 metres thick). Outflows of diabase and gabbro occur in this series, which is from 1600 to 2000 metres in thickness. Below the Jatulian is another group of schistose sediments, the Kalevian, more strongly folded than the former and separated from the groups above and below by unconformable junctions. These rocks are regarded by J. J. Sederholm as older than the Huronian of North America (possibly analogous to the Keewatin formation), and yet several groups of sediments in this region (Botnian schists, &c.) lie between the Kalevian series and the granitic (Archean) complex.

Pre-Cambrian rocks occupy large areas and attain an enormous thickness in North America; all types of sediment are represented in various stages of metamorphism, and with these are igneous rocks, often developed upon a vast scale. They have been subdivided into the following groups or formations: an upper Keweenawan