army from 1859 to 1872, when he retired with the rank of captain. He then gave himself up to philosophical work, especially in connexion with the phenomena of hypnotism and occultism from the modern psychological standpoint. He attempted to deduce the existence of spirit, apart from, and yet entering from time to time into connexion with, the phenomena of the senses, by an examination of the relation between the ego of thought and the age of sensible experience as understood by Kant. In 1868 he received the degree of doctor from the university of Tübingen in recognition of a treatise on the psychology of Dreams (Oneirokritikon. Der Traum vom Standpnnkt des transcendental en Idealismus) .
Subsequently, he published numerous works on various psychological and scientific subjects, of which the more important are: Der gesunde Mensehenverstand vor den Problemen der Wissensehaft (1872); Der Kampf ums Dasein am Himmel (1874), republished in 1882 under the title Entwiekelungsgeschichte des Weltalls Die Planetenbewohner und die Nebularhypothese (1880); Die Philosophie der Mystik (1885); Justinus Kerner und die Seherin von Prevorst (1886); Die monistische Seelenlehre (1888); Die Mystik der alten Griechen (1888); Kants mystische Weltanschauung (1889); Studien aus dem Gebiete der Geheimwissenschaften (1890); Der Spiritismus (1893); Die Entdeekung der Seele durch die Geheimwissenschaften (1894-1895). In Der Kampf ums Dasein am Himmel von Prel endeavoured to apply the Darwinian doctrine of organic evolution not only to the sphere of consciousness but also even more widely as the philosophical principle of the world. He was one of a large number of German thinkers who during the latter half of the 19th century endeavoured to treat the mind as a mechanism. He died on the 4th of August 1899.
See Evolution; in Philosophy.
PRELATE (Lat. praelatus, set above, from praefero, prefer), an ecclesiastical dignitary of high rank. In the early middle ages the title prelate was applied to secular persons in high positions and thence it passed to persons having ecclesiastical authority. The De prelatis of Valerian is concerned with secular princes, and even as late as the 14th century the title was occasionally applied to secular magistrates. In medieval ecclesiastical usage the term might be applied to almost any person having ecclesiastical authority; it was very commonly given to the more dignified clergy of a cathedral church, but often also to ordinary priests charged with the cure of souls and, in the early days of monasticism, to monastic superiors, even to superiors of convents of women. The term occurs very frequently in the Rule of St Benedict and other early monastic rules.
In more modern usage in the Roman Catholic Church prelates, properly so-called, are those who have jurisdiction in foro externo, but a liberal interpretation has given the title a more general significance. Prelacy is defined by the canoeists as “ pre-eminence with jurisdiction ” (praeeminentia cum jurisdictione), and the idea supposes an episcopal or quasi-episcopal jurisdiction. But gradually the title was extended to ecclesiastical persons having a prominent office even without jurisdiction, and later still it has come to be applied to ecclesiastical persons marked by some special honour though without any definite office or jurisdiction.
We may therefore distinguish “ true ” from “titular ” prelates. The true prelacy is composed of the persons who constitute the ecclesiastical hierarchy; jurisdiction is inherent in their office and gives pre-eminence, as with patriarchs, archbishops and bishops. A good example of the dependence of prelacy on jurisdiction is found in those religious orders, such as the Dominicans, where authority is strictly elective and temporary. Thus a Dominican prior ranks ipso facto as a prelate during his three years of office, but, if not re-elected, loses this dignity with his jurisdiction.
The true, no less than the titular, prelates have their various ranks, differing as regards title, precedence, clothing and other insignia. The distinguishing colour of a prelate's clothing is violet; the form, like the greater or less use of violet, depends on the rank of the prelate. Four classes may be distinguished: (1) Great prelates, e.g. cardinals, archbishops and bishops. (2) Exempt prelates (praelati nullius dioeceseos, praelati nullius), i.e. abbots and religious superiors, who are withdrawn from the ordinary diocesan jurisdiction and themselves possess episcopal jurisdiction (jurisdictio quasi episcopalis). (3) Roman prelates, (a) active and (b) honorary. The title is applied to numerous ecclesiastics attached by some dignity, active or honorary, to the Roman court (see Curia Romana). In the list of these prelates are protonotaries apostolic, domestic prelates, private chamberlains, participant and supernumerary. Of these last there are two kinds, honorary and honorary extra urbem. Only protonotaries and domestic prelates are for life; the others lose their dignity at the death of the pope who appointed them. A special class of Roman prelatures exist at Rome, endowed as a kind of ecclesiastical majority to which those members of certain families who are destined for the clerical life naturally succeed.
In the reformed churches the title was retained in England, Sweden, Denmark and Germany. The cathedral chapter of Brandenburg consists of two prelates, the dean and the senior, besides eight other members. The chapter of Merseburg contains five prelates, viz. the dean, senior, provost, custos and scholasticus. In Baden the general synod is presided over by the prelate (prelat), i.e. the principal “ superintendent” In the Church of England the term prelate has been since the Reformation applied only to archbishops and bishops. The word “ prelacy,” meaning no more originally than the office and dignity of a prelate, came to be applied in Presbyterian Scotland and Puritan England—especially during the 17th century—to the episcopal form of church government, being used in a derogatory sense.
See Du Cange, Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis (new ed., by L. Favre, Niort, 1883); Paul Hinschius, Kirchenrecht (Berlin, 1869); F. H. Vering, professor of law at Prague, Lehrbuch des katholischen, orientalischen und protestantischen Kirchenrechts (1893). (E. O'N.)
PRELLER, FRIEDRICH (1804–1878), German landscape-painter, was born at Eisenach on the 25th of April 1804. After studying drawing at Weimar, he went in 1821, on Goethe's advice, to Dresden, where in 1824 he was invited to accompany the grand duke of Weimar to Belgium. He became a pupil in the academy at Antwerp. From 1827 to 1831 he studied in Italy, and in 1831 received an appointment in the Weimar school of art. In 1834–1836 he executed in tempera six pictures on subjects taken from the Odyssey in the “ Roman House ” at Leipzig, in 1836–1837 the landscapes with scenes from Oberon in the Wieland room in the grand-ducal palace at Weimar, and in 1836–1848 six frescoes on Thuringian subjects commissioned by the grand duchess. In 1840 he visited Norway and produced a number of easel works, some of which are preserved at Weimar. In 1859 he revisited Italy, and on his return in 1861 he completed for the grand-ducal museum the frescoes illustrative of the Odyssey, which are held to constitute his chief claim to fame. Preller, who was also a successful etcher, died at Weimar on the 23rd of April 1878.
PRELLER, LUDWIG (1809–1861), German philologist and antiquarian, was born at Hamburg on the 15th of September 1809. After having studied at Leipzig, Berlin and Göttingen, in 1838 he was appointed to the professorship of philology at Dorpat, which, however, he resigned in 1843. He afterwards spent some time in Italy, but settled in Jena in 1844, where he became professor in 1846. In the same year he removed as head librarian to Weimar, where he died on the 21st of June 1861. His chief works are: Demeter u. Persephone (1837); Griechische Mythologie (1854–1855; 4th ed., by C. Robert, 1887 seq.); and Römische Mythologie (1858; 3rd ed. by H. Jordan, 1881–1883). He also co-operated with H. Ritter in the preparation of the most useful Historia philosophiae graecae et romanae ex fontium locis contexta (1838; ed. E. Wellmann, 1898). He contributed extensively to Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Encyklopädie and Pauly's Realencyklopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft. A complete list of his works will be found in Ausgewählte Aufsätze aus dem Gebiete der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft (ed. R. Köhler, 1864).
See G. T. Stichling, Ludwig Preller. Eine Gedächtnisrede (Weimar, 1863); C. Bursian, Geschichte der klassischen Philologie in Deutschland (1883).