nothing to Butler. Ill. Happiness he regards as the only end, conceivable by us, of divine Providence, but it is a happiness wholly dependent upon rectitude. Virtue tends always to happiness, and in the end must produce it in its perfect form.
Works.-Besides the above-mentioned, Price wrote an Essay on the Population of England (znd ed., 1780); two Fast-day Sermons, published respectively in 1779 and 1781; and Observations on the importance of the American Revolution and the means of rendering it a benefit to the World (1784). A complete list of his works is given as an appendix to Dr Priestley's Funeral Sermon. His views on the French Revolution are denounced by Burke in his Reflections on the Revolution in France. Notices of Price's ethical system occur in lmackintosh's Progress of Ethical Philosophy, ]ouffroy's Introduction to Ethics, Whewell's History of Moral Philosophy in England; Bain's Mental and Illoral Sciences. See also ETHICS, and T. Fowler's monograph on Shaftesbury and Hutcheson. For Price's life see memoir by his nephew, William Morgan. (J. M. M.)
PRICE, the equivalent in money for which a commodity is sold or purchased, the value of anything expressed in terms of a medium of exchange (see Value and Wealth. The word is a doublet of “ praise,” commendation, eulogy, Lat. laus, and “ prize,” a reward of victory, the ultimate source of which is the Lat. pretium; the Aryan root par-, to buy, is seen in Skr. pana, wages, reward, Gr. πιπράσκειν, to sell, &c. The O. Fr. pris, mod. prix, was taken from a Late Latin form precium, and had the various meanings of the English, “ price,” “ prize,” and “ praise”; it was adapted in English as pris or prise and was gradually differentiated in form for the different meanings; thus “praise” was developed from an earlier verbal form preise or preyse in the 15th century; the original meaning survives in “ appraise,” to set a value to anything, cf. the current meaning of “ to prize,” to value highly. “ Prize,” reward, does not appear as a separate form till the 16th century. In “ prize-fight,” a boxing contest for money, the idea of reward seems clear, but the word appears earlier than the form “ prize ” in this sense and means a contest or match, and may be a different word altogether; the New English Dictionary compares the Greek use of ἄθλον, literally reward, hence contest. “ Prize ” in the sense of that which is captured in war, especially at sea, is a distinct word. It comes through the Fr. prise, early Romanic presa for prensa, from Lat. praehendere, to seize, capture. For the international law on the subject see Prize.
PRICHARD, JAMES COWLES (1786-1848), English physician and ethnologist, was born on the 11th of February 1786 at Ross in Herefordshire. His parents were of the Society of Friends, and he was educated at home, especially in modern languages and general literature. He adopted medicine as a profession mainly because of the facilities it offered for anthropological investigations. He took his M.D. at Edinburgh, afterwards reading for a year at Trinity College, Cambridge, whence, joining the Church of England, he migrated to St John's College, Oxford, afterwards entering as a gentleman commoner at Trinity College, Oxford, but taking no degree in either university. In 1810 he settled at Bristol as a physician, and in 1813 published his Researches into the Physical History of Man, in 2 vols., afterwards extended to 5 vols. The central principle of the book is the primitive unity of the human species, acted upon by causes which have since divided it into permanent varieties or races. The work is dedicated to Blumenbach, whose five races of man are adopted. But where Prichard excelled Blumenbach and all his other predecessors was in his grasp of the principle that people should be studied by combining all available characters. One investigation begun in this work requires special mention, the bringing into View of the fact, neglected or contradicted by philologists, that the Celtic nations are allied by language with the Slavonian, German and Pelasgian (Greek and Latin), thus forming a fourth European branch of the Asiatic stock (which would now be called Indo-European or Aryan). His special treatise containing Celtic compared with Sanskrit words appeared in 1831 under the title Eastern Origin of the Celtic nations. It is remarkable that the essay by Adolphe Pictet, De l' /ljfinité des langues celtiques avec le sanscrit, which was crowned by the French Academy and made its author's reputation, should have been published in 1837 in evident ignorance of the earlier and in some respects stricter investigations of Prichard.
In 1843 Prichard published his Natural History of M an, in which he reiterated his belief in the specific unity of man, pointing out that “ the same inward and mental nature is to be recognized in all the races.” Prichard may fairly be honoured with the title of the founder of the English branch of the sciences of anthropology and ethnology. In 1811 he was appointed physician to St Peter's hospital, Bristol, and in 1814 to the Bristol infirmary. In 1822 he published Treatise on Diseases of the Nervous System (pt. i.), and in 1835 a Treatise on Insanity and other Disorders ajecting the Mind, in which he advanced the theory of the existence of a distinct mental disease, “ moral insanity.” In 1842, following up this suggestion, he published On the different forms of Insanity in relation to Jurisprudence designed for the use of Persons concerned in Legal Questions regarding U soundness of Mind. In 1845 he was made a commissioner in lunacy, and removed to London. He died there three years later, on the 231'd of December, of rheumatic fever. At the time of his death he was president of the Ethnological Society and a fellow of the Royal Society. Among his less important works were: A Review of the Doctrine of a Vital Principle (1829); On the Treatment of Hemiplegia (1831); On the Extinction of some Varieties of the Human Race (1839); Analysis of Egyptian Mythology (1819).
See Memoir by Dr Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866) in the Journal of the Ethnological Society (Feb. 1349); Memoir read before the Bath and Bristol branch of the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association (March 1849) by Dr ]. A. Symonds (fourn. Eth. Soc., (1850); Prichard and Symonds in Special Relation to Mental Science, by Dr Hack Tuke (1891).
PRICK POSTS, an old architectural name given sometimes to the queen posts of a roof, and sometimes to the filling in quarters in framing. (See Posr and PANE.)
PRIDE, THOMAS (d. 1658), parliamentarian general in the English Civil War, is stated to have been brought up by the parish of St Bride's, London. Subsequently he was a drayman and a brewer. At the beginning of the Civil War he served as a captain under the earl of Essex, and was gradually promoted to the rank of colonel. He distinguished himself at the battle of Preston, and with his regiment took part in the military occupation of London in December 1648, which was the first step towards bringing the king to trial. The second was the expulsion of the Presbyterian and Royalist elements in the House of Commons, for which Pride is chiefly remembered. This, resolved by the army council and ordered by the lord general, Fairfax, was carried out by Colonel Pride's regiment. Taking his stand at the entrance of the House of Commons with a written list in his hand, he caused the arrest or exclusion of the obnoxious members, who were pointed out to him. After about a hundred members had been thus dealt with (“ Pride's Purge ”), the mutilated House of Commons proceeded to bring the king to trial. Pride was one of the judges of the king and signed his death-warrant, appending to his signature a seal showing a coat of arms. He commanded an infantry brigade under Cromwell at Dunbar and Worcester. He took no conspicuous part in Commonwealth politics, except in opposing the proposal to confer the kingly dignity on Cromwell. He was knighted by the Protector in 1656, and was also chosen a member of the new House of Lords. He died at Nonsuch House, an estate which he had bought in Surrey, on the 2 3rd of October 1658. After the Restoration his body was ordered to be dug up and suspended on the gallows at Tyburn along with those of Cromwell, Ireton and Bradshaw, though it is said that the execution of this sentence was evaded.
Noble, Lives of the Regicides; Bate, Lives of the Prime Actors and Principal Contrivers of the Murder of Charles I .; Carlyle, Cromwell's Letters and Speeches.
PRIDEAUX, HUMPHREY (1648-1724), English divine and Oriental scholar, was born of good family at Place, in Cornwall, on the 3rd of May 1648, and received his early education at the grammar schools of Liskeard and Bodmin. In 1665 he was placed at Westminster under Busby, and in 1668 went on to