Page:EB1911 - Volume 22.djvu/338

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signifying originally a small customary payment over and above the freight made to the masterof the ship for his care and trouble. It is now generally included in the freight, as an additional percentage. It varies according to the usages of different ports and particular trades.

PRIMATE (from Low Lat. primas=one who held the first place, primas partes). During the 4th and 5th centuries A.D. the title was applied to both secular and ecclesiastical officials. The Theodosian Code mentions primates of towns, districts and fortified places (Primates urbium, vicorum, castettorum). The Pragmatic Sanction of Iustinian also mentions primates governing a district, primates regionis; and in this sense thetitle survived, under Turkish rule, in Greece until the 19th century. An official called “ primate of the palace ” is mentioned in the laws of the Visigoths. Primas also seems to have been used loosely during the middle ages for “ head ” or “ chief.” Du Cange cites primas castri. The title, however, has been more generally used to denote a bishop with special privileges and powers. It was first employed almost synonymously with metropalitart to denote the chief bishop of a province having his see in the capital and certain rights of superintendence over the whole province. At the Council of Nicaea (A.D. 32 5) the metropolitan constitution was assumed as universal, and after this the terms “ metropolitan, ” and “ primate, ” to denote the chief bishop of a province, came into general use. The title of primate was used more generally in Africa, while elsewhere metropolitan was more generally employed. The primates in Africa differed from those elsewhere in that the title always belonged to the longest ordained bishop in a province, who had not necessarily his see in the capital, except in the case of the bishop of Carthage, who was head also of the other five African provinces. There were also three sorts of honorary primates: (1) primates aevo, the oldest bishop in a province next to the primate, on whom power devolved when the primate was disabled or disqualified; (2) titular metropolitan, the bishops of certain cities which had the name and title of civil metro poles bestowed on them by some emperor; (3) the bishops of some mother-churches which were honoured by ancient custom but were subject to the ordinary metropolitan, e. g. the bishop of Jerusalem, who was subject to his metropolitan at Caesa1'ea.

At a later date “ primate ” became the official title of certain metropolitan who obtained from the pope a position of episcopal authority over several other metropolitan and who were, at the same time, appointed vicars of the Holy See. This was done in the case of the bishops of Arles and Thessalonica as early as the 5th century. Such primates were sometimes also called patriarchs, primates diocese arum (political, not episcopal dioceses), primates provincial, summi primates, praesules omrtium sacerdotum in partibus suis. In this sense the Western primate was considered the equivalent of the Eastern patriarch. The archbishop of lfeims received the title of primas inter primates. By the False Decretals an attempt was made to establish such a primacy as a permanent institution, but the attempt was not successful and the dignity of primate became more or less honorary. The overlapping of the title is illustrated by the case of England, where the archbishop of York still bears the title of primate of England and the archbishop of Canterbury that of primate of all England. A less general use of the title isits application in medieval usage to the head of a cathedral school or college (primas scholar um) and to the dignitaries of a cathedral church. The abbot of Fulda received from the pope the title of primas inter abbates. In the Episcopal Church of Scotland the senior bishop is styled the primas. Du Cange, Glossarium; Hinschius, Kirchenrecht (Berlin, 1869); Moeller, History of the Christian Church, translated from the German by Andrew Rutherford, B.D. (London, 1902); Bingham, Origincs ecclesiastical (1840).

PRIMATES (Lat. primus, first), the name given by Linnaeus to the highest order of mammals (see MAMMALIA), which was taken by him to include not only man, apes, monkeys and lemurs, but likewise bats. The latter group is now separated as a distinct order (see CHIROPTERA). It has also been proposed to remove from the Primates the lemurs, constituting the group Prosimiae, or Lemuroidea, to form an order by themselves; but general opinion is now against this view, and they are accordingly here regarded as representing a sub-order of Primates, all the other members of which are included in a second sub ordinal group-the Artthropoidea, or Simiae. Support to the view that lemurs should be included in the order is afforded by the discovery in Madagascar of an extinct species (Nempit/zecus) presenting certain characters connecting it with monkeys on the one hand and with lemurs on the other. In this broader sense the Primates may briefly be defined as follows. All the members of the order are plantigrade mammals, normally with five fingers and five toes, which are generally armed with broad Battened nails, although these are rarely replaced on single digits, or on all the digits, by claws or claw-like nails. The dental formula is i.%, c.}, d. 3; (§ -), (%); all the teeth in advance of the molars being normally preceded by milk-teeth. The molars are three-, four- or iive-cusped, but the cusps may in some cases coalesce into transverse ridges. The thumb and great toe are, as a rule, opposable to the other digits. The clavicles (collar-bones) are complete; there is nearly always a free centrale bone in the wrist, or carpus, in which the scaphoid and lunar are likewise generally separate. The orbits (and the eyes) are directed more or less forwards, and generally

surrounded by bone (fig. 1),

while the lower jaw has

a vertical movement on

the upper. With a few

exceptions the stomach is

simple; and a duodenojejunal

flexure of the intestine

and a caecum are

pi esent. The diet is generally

vegetable, but may be

mixed, or, rare1y, Consisting

of insects. The uterus may

be either bicornuate or

simple; and the placenta

either discoidal and deciduate,

or diffuse and

non-deciduate, with a great

development of the allantois.

The clitoris may or

may not be perforate; the

penis is pendent; and the

testes are extra-abdominal

situate either in a scrotum

behind the penis or in a

similarly situated fold of

the integument. At most

the teats are four in number,

but generally only

two situated on the breast,

although occasionally abdominal

or even inguinal.

As a rule only a single

offspring is produced at a.

FIG. 1.-Lateral and lower views of the Skull of a Langur Monke (Semanpithecus), to show the forward direction

and complete closure of the orbits, and the characters of the dentition of birth, such offspring being the Old Wor Catar ml always born in a completely helpless condition.

With the exception of man, who has adapted himself to exist in all climates, the Primates are essentially av tropical and subtropical group, although some of the monkeys inhabit districts where the winter climate is severe. The great majority-in fact nearly all-of the members of the order are arboreal in their habits. In size there is great variation, the extremes in this respect being represented by man and the gorilla on the one side, and the marmosets and tarsiers, which are no larger than squirrels, on the other.

As regards the proper meaning of the popular names “ monkey, ” “ baboon ” and “ ape, ” it appears that these are in the main general terms which, with the exception of the second,