of Herzog-Hauck's Realencyklopfidie. Among commentators and translators may be mentioned: Ewald (1837, 1867); Noyes (1836); Stuart (1852); Hitzig (1858); Zockler, in Lange's Bibelwerk (1866, Eng. trans., 1870); Delitzsch (1873, Eng. trans., 1875); Reuss, in La Bible (1878, Germ. ed., 1894); Nowack (revision 0 Bertheau) in Kurzgefasst exeg. Handbuch z. A. T. (1883); Strack in Strock u. Zdcklefs kurzgef. Comm. z. A. T. (1888, 2nd ed., 1899); Horton, in Expositor's Bible (1891); Wildeboer, in Marti's Kurz. Hand-Comm. z. A. T. (1897); Frankenberg, in Nowack's Hartdkomm. z. A. T. (1898); Toy, in Internat. crit. Comm. (1898); Kautzsch, Die heil. Sehrift. d. A.T. (2nd ed., 1896); Oort, Het Oude Test. (1898-1900). See also Bois, La Poésie gnomigue chez I. Heb. éfc. (1886) Cheyne, Job and Solomon (1887); id., in Sem. Studies (ed. Kohut, 1897); id., Jew. Retig. Life (1898); Montefiore in Jew. Quart. Review (1889~1890). On Proverbs of Other Ancient Peoples: Egyptian-Grifiith, art. “ Egypt Lit." in Libr. of World's Best Lit.(1897), vol. xiii.; Assyrian: Halévy, Mélanges (1883); jager, in Beitr. z. Assyriologie (1892); Hindu: Monier-Williams, Indian Wisdom (1875); Arabic: Jacob, Attarab. Parallelert 2. A. T. (1897); Fleischer's ed. of Ali (1837); Freytag, Arabum proverbial (1838). A general collection has been made by Malan, Orig. Notes on the Book of Proverbs (1889; 1893). tc. H.'1'.*)
PROVIDENCE, the second largest city of New England, capital of Rhode Island, U.S.A., the county-seat of Providence county, and a port of entry, situated at the head of Providence river (the N. arm of Narragansett Bay) and at the influx of the Seekonk (or Blackstone), Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket rivers, about 35 m. from the Atlantic ocean, 45 m. by rail S.S.W. of Boston, and 188 m. E.N.E. of New York. Pop. (1890), 132,146; (1900), 175,5Q7; (1905, state census), IQ8,635, of whom 65,746 were foreign-born, including 17,155 Irish, 12,114 Italians, 9795 English, 4221 English Canadians, 4005 French Canadians, 3685 Russians, 3347 Swedes, 2211 Germans, 2173 Portuguese (including some Bravas from the Cape Verde Islands), and 1930 Scotsmen. The figure for 1910 was 2 24,3 26. Providence is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway and by steamboat lines to Newport, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Norfolk. It extends over an area of more than 18 sq. m., and is irregularly laid out. The Seekonk and Providence rivers mark the eastern boundary, the Providence and Moshassuck rivers divide the middle and northern portion of the city into the east and west sides, and the Woonasquatucket river divides the west' side into the northern and southern parts. The west side is a level or gently rolling plain only a few feet above the sea, but on the eastern side are a plateau and hills rising to a maximum height of about 200 ft. The larger and newer portion of the business district is along the western bank of the Providence, and some of the best business houses are on made land. The part of the city which has most historic interest is on the east side, where are the most attractive residences. Most of the manufactories are along the banks of the Woonasquatucket and Moshassuck. The names of streets-Pound, Sovereign, Shilling, Dollar, Doubloon, Benevolent, Benefit, Hope, Friendship, Peace, &c., reflect the early commercial importance of the city and its strong Quaker element.
The principal building is the large State House, completed in 1902, of Georgia marble and white granite, surmounted by a central dome of marble, 235 ft. high, and standing on a rise of ground (Capitol Hill) about é m. north by west of the steamboat landing at the head of Providence river; in the state chamber is a full length portrait of George Washington by Gilbert Stuart. The old State House on Benefit Street, on the east side, is now used as the 6th district (Providence and North Providence) court-house. Near the centre of the city (in Exchange Place) is the city-hall (1878), a handsome structure of granite; on its facade is a medallion of Roger Williams. Across Exchange Place from the city-hall is the Federal Building (1908), which houses the post-office, custom-house, U.S. courts, &c. The county court-house (1877) is the only other prominent government building. The Arcade (1828), 22 5 ft. long, with six massive Ionic columns at each entrance, the Butler Exchange, and a few other fine buildings fronting on Westminster Street are among the more prominent business buildings. In Cranston Street, between Waterloo and Dexter, is an Armory, with the largest ball in New England. A handsome public library building, Opened in 1900, lying between Fountain, Greene and Washington Streets, houses a good collection of 140,000 vols. (in 1909); other libraries are the State Library (30,000 volumes), the State Law Lihary (50,000 volumes) in the Providence county courthouse, the Providence Athenaeum (the Providence Library, established in 1753, united in 1836 with the Providence Athenaeum, established in 1831; in 1909 it had 73,000 volumes), the library of the Rhode Island Historical Society (established 1822; with 30,000 volumes and 50,000 pamphlets in 1909), and the libraries of Brown University. The meeting-house of the First Baptist Church, founded by Roger Williams, the oldest organization of this sect in the United States, was built in 1775 and was designed to resemble St Martin's-in-the-Fields, London. Its bell still rings the curfew at nine o'clock every evening; and the corn men cements of Brown University are held here. The Friends' meeting-house, another interesting old building, was erected in 1759. The Beneficent Church (Congregational, 1809-1810) is in the Colonial style, with a rounded dome. The Church of the Blessed Sacrament (Roman Catholic), in Academy Street, was designed by John La Farge. The Roman Catholic Cathedral of SS. Peter and Paul (1878) is of brown stone and has excellent interior decorations. Providence is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. In Cathedral Square is a statue (1889) by Henry Hudson Kitson of Thomas A.' Doyle, mayor of the city (1864-1869, 1870-1881, and from 1884 until his death in 1886). There is an equestrian statue (1887) by Launt Thompson of General A. E. Burnside in City Hall Park. In front of the post-office are two allegorical groups (“ Providence” and “the United States ”) by ]. Massey Rhind. In Columbus Park is a replica of Bartholdi's “ Columbus, ” which was cast in silver by Providence metal workers for the Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Other statues are Hippolyte Hubert's Ebenezer Knight Dexter (erected 1894), George Thomas Brewster's bronze “ Genius of Religious Liberty ” on the dome of the State House, Franklin Simmons's Roger Williams (1877) in Roger Williams Park, a Hellenic bronze “Pancratiast” (1900, presented to the city by Paul Bajnotti of Turin) also in Roger Williams Park, and a Hellenistic statue of Augustus on the campus of Brown University. Two fountains also are worth mention: the Bajnotti Memorial Fountain in City Hall Park, a memorial to the wife of Paul Bajnotti, representing “ The Struggle of Life ” and designed by Enid Yandell; and the Elisha Dyer Memorial Fountain, a bronze athlete, by H. H. Kitson. There are art collections in Brown University and in the Annmary Brown Memorial (given to the city as a memorial to his wife, a daughter of Nicholas Brown, by Rush C. Hawkins, b. 1831). Among interesting old houses of the 18th century are the Admiral Hopkins House, in Hopkins Park, the Stephen Hopkins House (1742; 9 Hopkins St.), the John Carter Brown House (1791; 357 Benefit St.), and the John Brown House (1786; 52 Power St.). There are many colonial houses, .red brick with marble trimmings, set well back from the street, with an occasional walled garden. There are many musical societies in Providence, including the Chopin Club (1879), the Arion Club (1880), the Einklang Singing Society (1890; German), the Verdandi Swedish Singing Society (1894), and the Providence Musical Association (1904). Other clubs are the Brown Union, University Club, a cricket and a polo club, golf clubs, yacht clubs and canoe clubs, the Handicraft Club, the Providence Art Club, the Hope Club and the Deutsche Gesellschaft.
Under the municipal park commissioners there are 33 public parks with a total area of 644-38 acres, and the city supports summer playgrounds; the state board of metropolitan park commissioners controls a large park system in the metropolitan park district, and a system of boulevards, connecting the several parks and other public reservations; there are nine metropolitan reservations, containing 677 acres, the largest being Lincoln Woods, of 460 acres, 4 m. north of the State House. Other metropolitan reservations are: Woonasquatucket Reservation (53 acres; 2% m. west of the State House); Edgewood Beach (2%1111. south of the State House); and the Ten Mile River Reservation (IOO acres; 4% m. north-east of the State House) on both sides of Ten Mile River. The finest municipal reservation is Roger