by Sainte-Beuve (Nouveaux lundis, xi.) to have been composed chiefly by Clermont Tonnerre and Pierre V. Malouet, and it was regarded, even by moderate men, as ill-timed. The published Lettre de l'abbé Raynal à l'Assemblée nationale (10th Dec. 1790) was really the work of the comte de Guibert. During the Terror Raynal lived in retirement at Passy and at Montlhéry. On the establishment of the Directory in 1795 he became a member of the newly organized Institute of France. He died in the next year on the 6th of March at Chaillot.
A detailed bibliography of his works and of those falsely attributed to him will be found in Quérard's La France littéraire, and the same author's Supercheries dévoilées. The biography by A. Jay, prefixed to Peuchet's edition (Paris, 10 vols, 1820–1821) of the Histoire . . . des Indes, is of small value. To this edition Peuchet added two supplementary volumes on colonial development from 1785 to 1824. See also the anonymous Raynal démasqué (1791); Cherhal Montréal, Éloge . . . de G. T. Raynal (an. IV.); a notice in the Moniteur (5 vendémiaire, an. V.); B. Lunet, Biographie de l’abbé Raynal (Rodez, 1866); and J. Morley, Diderot (1891).
RAYNALD OF CHÂTILLON (d. 1187), a knight in the service of Constance, princess of Antioch, whom she chose for her husband in 1153, four years after the death of her first husband Raymund (q.v.). One of Raynald's first acts was a brutal assault on the patriarch of Antioch; while two years later he made an unjustifiable attack on Cyprus, in the course of which the island was ravaged. The act brought its punishment in 1159, when he had to humiliate himself before the emperor Manuel, doing homage and promising to accept a Greek patriarch; and when Manuel came to Antioch in the same year, and was visited there by Baldwin III., Raynald led his horse into the city. Later in the year he was captured by the Mahommedans, during a plundering raid against the Syrian and Armenian peasants of the neighbourhood of Marash, and confined at Aleppo. His captivity lasted seventeen years. Released in 1176, he married Stephanie, the widow of Humphrey of Toron, and heiress of Krak and Mont Royal, to the S.E. of the Dead Sea—fortresses which controlled the trade-routes between Egypt and Damascus, and gave him access to the Red Sea. In November 1177, at the head of the army of the kingdom, he won a victory over Saladin, who only escaped with difficulty from the pursuit. But in 1181 the temptation of the caravans which passed by his fortress proved too strong, and in spite of a truce between Saladin and Baldwin IV. he began to plunder. Saladin demanded reparations from Baldwin IV. Baldwin could only reply that he was unable to coerce his unruly vassal. The result was a new outbreak of war between Saladin and the Latin kingdom (1182). In the course of the hostilities Raynald launched ships on the Red Sea, partly for buccaneering, partly, it seems, with the design of attacking Mecca, and of challenging Mahommedanism in its own holy place. His ships were captured by one of Saladin's officers; and at the end of the year Saladin himself attacked Raynald in his fortress of Krak, at a time when a number of guests were assembled to celebrate the marriage of his stepson, Humphrey of Toron. The siege was raised, however, by Count Raymund of Tripoli; and till 1186 Raynald was quiet. In that year he espoused the cause of Sibylla and Guy de Lusignan against Count Raymund, and his influence contributed to the recognition of Guy as king of Jerusalem. His policy at this crisis was not conceived in the best interests of the kingdom; and a step which he took at the end of the year was positively fatal. Hearing of a rich caravan, in which the sister of Saladin was travelling, he swooped down from his fortress upon it. Thus, for the second time, he broke a truce between the kingdom and Saladin. Guy could not extort from him the satisfaction which Saladin demanded: Raynald replied that he was lord in his lands, and that he had no peace with Saladin to respect. Saladin swore that Raynald should perish if ever he took him prisoner; and next year he was able to fulfil his oath. He invaded the kingdom, and, at the battle of Hittin, Raynald along with King Guy and many others fell into his hands. They were brought to his tent; and Saladin, after rebuking Raynald strongly for his treachery, offered him his life if he would become a Mahommedan. He refused, and Saladin either slew him with his own hands or caused him to be slain (for accounts differ) in the presence of his companions.
The death of Raynald caused him to be regarded as a martyr; his life only shows him to have been a brigand of great capacity. He is the apotheosis of the feudal liberty which the barons of the Holy Land vindicated for themselves; and he shows, in his reckless brigandage, the worst side of their character. Stevenson, Crusades in the East (Cambridge, 1907), takes a most favourable view of Raynald's career: cf. especially pp. 240–241. But his whole life seems to indicate a self-willed and selfish temper. (E. Br.)
RAYNAUD'S DISEASE, a malady first described by P. Edouard Raynaud in 1862 in a paper on “ Local Asphyxia and Symmetrical Gangrene of the Extremities.” The condition is said to be of central nervous origin, and cold, fright, or emotional disturbances are predisposing causes. It is a disease of childhood or early adult life, and females are more frequently affected than males. Raynaud attributed the symptoms to an arrest of the passage of blood to the affected parts, and considered this due to a spasm of the arterioles. If the spasm be sufficiently prolonged and intense to completely close the arterial channels gangrene of the part may be the result.
The local symptoms are divided into three well-marked stages. The first is local syncope, in which the affected parts become temporarily bloodless, white, cold, and anaesthetic. The condition is familiar in what is termed a “ dead finger,” and is usually bilateral. After a variable time the circulation may become restored with a tingling sensation, or the disease may progress to the second stage, that of local asphyxia. In this condition some part of the body, usually a finger, toe, or the whole hand or foot, becomes painful to the touch and is noticed to be dusky in colour, or bluish-purple or even mottled, and the surface is cold. This discoloration may deepen until the skin is almost black, the tactile sense being lost. After several hours the pain may subside, the attack of lividity pass off, and warmth return to the skin. Such attacks of local asphyxia may return every day for a time. Sometimes severe abdominal pain is present, accompanied by haematuria. The frequency of haematuria in this connexion was first noticed by Hutchinson in 1871. In the third stage, that of local gangrene, the involved areas assume a black and shrivelled appearance, livid streaks marking the course of the arteries; blebs may form containing bloody fluid. The degree of destruction varies from the detachment of a patch of soft tissue down to the loss of even a whole limb, the part becoming separated by a line of demarcation as in senile gangrene.
In Raynaud's disease the patients have been noticed to be very susceptible to cold and low temperatures; every effort should be made to keep the extremities warm; woollen underclothing and stockings should be worn, and the activity of the circulation roused by douches and exercise; by these means an attack may be prevented. Should local asphyxia have taken place, one of the best treatments to lessen pain and obtain the return of the natural colour is the application of the constant current. Sir T. Barlow directs its application, the limb being placed in a bath of warm salt and water. Cushing's method of inducing active hyperaemia has been attended with much success. 'This treatment is only applicable when the vascular spasm affects the extremities, and consists in the artificial constriction of the limb by the application of a tourniquet or Esmarch's bandage for a few minutes daily. This is followed by hyperaemia and increased surface temperature, and affords much relief to the pain of the stage of asphyxia. Drugs which dilate the peripheral vessels, such as amyl nitrite and trinitrine, have also been recommended. When gangrene occurs in the affected part it should be well wrapped in absorbent cotton and kept dry, and all active treatment should cease until a line of demarcation has formed and the gangrenous portion separated. The disease tends towards recovery with more or less loss of tissue if the stage of gangrene has been reached.
RAYNOUARD, FRANÇOIS JUSTE MARIE (1761–1836), French dramatist and savanl, was born at Brignoles (Provence), on the 8th of September 1761. He was educated for the bar