Page:EB1911 - Volume 24.djvu/118

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This has a great volume of water, but is unnavigable because of its steep gradient and many gorges. After the Hwe Lōng, entering from the left at Ta Kaw, is passed, the Nam Pang comes in 22 m. lower down on the right bank. This is probably the largest tributary of the Salween; some distance above its mout, at Kēng Hkam, it is 400 yds. wide and quite unfordable. The next important tributary is the Nam Hsim, on the left bank, rising in the latitude of Kēng Tung. It is a large but quite unnavigable stream. Except the Mē Sili and Mē Sala, from opposite sides, and the Nam Hang, which burrows its way through a range of hills from the E., and the Nam Pan, coming from the W., there is no considerable tributary till 19° 52′ N., where the Nam Tēng comes in on the right from the central Shan States. This is a considerable river, and navigable for long stretches in its upper course, but the last few miles before it enters the Salween are little better than a cataract. Below this the only large affluent is the Nam Pawn, which drains all Karenni and a considerable portion of the Shan States, but is quite unnavigable. Below this the tributaries are again only mountain streams till the Thaung-yin comes in from the S.E. Thirty m. lower down is Kyodan, the great timber depot. Here a cable, stretched across the river, catches all the timber, which is then made up into rafts and floated down to Kado, near Moulmein, where the revenue is collected. The Yōnzalīn enters the Salween from the right about 10 m. below Kyodan. Boats can ply from Kyodan S., and light draught steamers ascend as far as Shwegōn, 63 m. from Moulmein. The Salween cuts the British Shan States nearly in half, and is a very formidable natural obstacle. It seems probable, however, that long stretches of it can be opened to trade. It is certainly no less navigable than the Middle Mekong or the Yangtsze-kiang above I-chang.  (J. G. Sc.) 

SALWEEN, a district in the Tenasserim division of Lower Burma. Area, 2666 sq.m. Pop. (1901) 37,837, consisting largely of aboriginal tribes, Karens (33,448) and Shans (2816). Nearly the whole district is a maze of mountains intersected by deep ravines, the only level land of any considerable extent being found in the valley of the Yōnzalīn, While the country is covered with dense forest, of which 128 sq. m. are reserved. The district is drained by three principal rivers, the Salween, Yōnzalīn and Bilīn, fed by mountain torrents. The Yōnzalīn, which rises in the extreme N., is navigable with some difficulty in the dry season as far as Papun; the Bilīn is not navigable within the limits of the district except by small boats and rafts. The district is in charge of a superintendent of police, with headquarters at Papun. The total rainfall in 1905 was 114.48 in., recorded at Papun. Apart from cotton-weaving, there are no manufactures. A considerable trade is carried on with Siam by bridle paths across the mountains.

SALYANY, a town of Russian Transcaucasia, in the government of Baku, 80 m. S.S.W. from Baku, on the river Kura, and on an island of the same name. In 1897 its population was 10,168, chiefly Tatars. It is a fishing centre, where thousands of workers gather from all parts of Russia during the season. Salyany was annexed to Russia in the 18th century, but was retaken by the Persians, and only became Russian finally in 1813.

SALYES (Gr. Σάλυες: also Sallyes, Salyi, Salluvii), in ancient geography, a people occupying the plain S. of the Druentia (Durance) between the Rhone and the Alps. According to Strabo (iv. p. 203) the older Greeks called them Ligyes, and their territory Ligystikē. By some authorities they were considered a mixed race of Galli and Ligurians (hence Celtoligyes); by others a purely Celtic people, who subjugated the Ligures in the Provincia. They are said to have been the first transalpine people subdued by the Romans (Florus iii. 2). In 154 b.c. the inhabitants of Massilia, who had been connected with the Romans by ties of friendship since the second Punic war, appealed for aid against the Oxybii and Decietes (or Deciates). These people, called by Livy (Epit. 47) “transalpine Ligurians,” were perhaps two smaller tribes included under the general name of Salyes. They were defeated by Quintus Opimius. In 125–124 hostilities broke out between the Romans and the Salyes from the same cause. The successful operations of Marcus Fulvius Flaccus were continued by Gaius Sextius Calvinus (123–122), who definitely subdued the Salyes, destroyed their chief town, and founded near its ruins the colony of Aquae Sextiae (Aix). Part of their territory was handed over to the Massaliots. Their king, Tutomotulus (or Teutomalius), took refuge with the Allobroges. From this time the Salyes practically disappear from history. Among other important Roman towns in their territory may be mentioned Tarusco or Tarasco (Tarascon), Arelate (Arles), Glanum (St Remy) and Ernaginum (St Gabriel).

For ancient authorities see A. Holder, Altceltischer Sprachschatz, ii. (1904).

SALZA, HERMANN VON (c. 1170–1239), Master of the Teutonic Order, and councillor of the emperor Frederick II., was a scion of the family of Langensalza in Thuringia. He entered the Teutonic Order in early life, became very intimate with Frederick II., took part in the expedition to Damietta in 1221, and accompanied the emperor on the crusade of 1228, which was joined by many princes owing to his influence. About 1210 he was appointed master of the Teutonic Order, and was offered, in 1226, the province of Kulm by Conrad I., duke of Masovia, in return for help against the Prussians; this he accepted and obtained the investiture from Frederick. In 1230 the conquest of Prussia was begun by the Order, although not under his immediate leadership. In 1225 he reconciled Valdemar II., king of Denmark, with Henry I., count of Schwerin, and thus won again the land on the right bank of the Elbe for the Empire, and the recognition of imperial superiority over Denmark. Trusted by Pope Gregory IX. and the emperor alike, he brought about the treaty of San Germano between them in 1230, was the only witness when they met in conference at Anagni in the same year, and it was he who, in 1235, induced Frederick's son, Henry, to submit to his father. He died on the 19th of March 1239 at Barletta in Apulia, and was buried there in the chapel of his Order.

Vide: A. Koch, Hermann von Salza, Meister des deutschen Ordens (Leipzig, 1885).

SALZBRUNN, a watering-place of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, at the foot of a. well-wooded spur of the Riesengebirge, 30 m. S.W. of Breslau, by the railway to Halberstadt. Pop. (1905) 10,412. It consists of Ober-, Neu- and Nieder-Salzbrunn, has a Roman Catholic and an Evangelical church and manufactures of glass, bricks and porcelain. Its alkalo-saline springs, especially efficacious in 'pulmonary and urinary complaints, were known as early as 1316, but fell into disuse until rediscovered early in the 19th century. The waters are used both for drinking and bathing, and of the two chief springs, the Oberbrunnen and the Kronenquelle, nearly two million bottles are annually exported. The number of summer visitors is about 7000 a year.

See Valentiner, Der Kurort Obersalzbrunn (Berlin, 1877); Biefel, Der Kurort Salzbrunn (Salzbrunn, 1872); and Deutsch, Schlesiens Heilquellen und Kurorte (Breslau, 1873).

SALZBURG, a duchy and crown land of Austria, bounded E. by Upper Austria and Styria, N. by Upper Austria and Bavaria, W. by Bavaria and Tirol and S. by Carinthia and Tirol. It has an area of 2762 sq. m. Except a small portion in the extreme N., near Bavaria, the country is mountainous and belongs to the N. and central zone of the Eastern Alps. It is divided into three regions; the region of the Hohe Tauern, extending S. of the Salzach, the region of the limestone Alps and the undulating foothill region. The Hohe Tauern contains many high lying valleys, traversed by the streams which flow into the Salzach, as well as numerous depressions and passes, here called popularly Tauern. The deepest depression of the Whole range is the Velber Tauern valley (8334 ft.) between the Velber and the Tauern, and the principal pass is the Niederer (Mallnitzer) Tauern (7920 ft.). This pass which leads from the Gastein valley to Carinthia is the oldest bridle-path over the Hoher Tauern. Between the passes is the ridge of Sonnblick, where a meteorological observatory was established in 1886 at an altitude of 10,170 ft. The region of the limestone Alps is composed of several detached groups: a portion of the Kitzbiihler Alps, which contain the famous Thurn pass (4183 ft.), then the Salzburg Alps, which contain the Loferer Steinberge and the peak Birnhorn (8637 ft.); the Reitalm or the Reiteralpe with the peak Stadelhorn (7495 ft.), and the broad mass of the Schonfeldspitze (8708 ft.), from which the great glacier-covered block of the Ewiger Schnee, or Ubergossene Alps projects into the Salzach valley. Farther N. are the Hagengebirge (7844 ft.); the beautiful summit of the Hoher Goll (8263 ft.); the Tennegebirge (7217 ft.); and the Untersberg, an outpost of the Berchtesgaden