to 89 in 1906, and the number of work-people directly affected, from 7606 (involved in 68 disputes) in 1900 to 1148 (involved in 43 disputes) in 1903. The number of work-people shown is the maximum number affected at any one time, but the number involved is not obtained for all disputes. Of the total number of disputes which took place during the seven years' period 1900-1906, viz. 518, 53% were caused by questions of wages, 3% by hours of labour, 7% by working arrangements, rules, &c., 6% by questions of trade unionism, and 31% by other causes or causes unknown.
Holland.—Statistics of disputes in Holland are published by the central statistical bureau. During the three years 1904, 1905 and 1906 the number of disputes recorded were 102, 132 and 181 respectively, and the number of work-people directly affected 11,186, 7364 and 18,858 respectively, but the number of work-people affected was not ascertained in every dispute. The causes of disputes are measured by the number of days lost by the work-people directly affected (though these particulars were not obtained for all disputes), and the days lost by disputes which had more than one cause are included under each cause or object. In 1904 25%, in 1905 53% and in 1906 51% of the time lost was caused by questions of wages. The results of disputes in the three years are shown in the following table:—
|Result.||Number of Disputes.|
|In favour of work-people||24||25||35|
|In favour of employers||43||49||63|
|Indeterminate or unknown||4||3||7|
The figure for 1906 does not include 8 “sympathetic” disputes which came to an end when the original dispute terminated in connexion with which they occurred.
Austria.—Particulars of strikes and lock-outs are published by the Austrian labour department.
The following table shows the number of strikes, the number of strikers and non-strikers affected, the number of working days lost by strikers, and the number of lock-outs and work-people involved in each of the seven years 1900 to 1906.
|Number of strikes||303||270||264||324||414||686||1,083|
|Number of work-people taking part in strikes||105,128||24,870||37,471||46,215||64,227||99,591||153,688|
|Number of non-strikers affected||7,737||2,846||6,354||5,245||9,301||11,340||13,098|
|Number of working days lost by strikers||3,483,963||157,744||284,046||500,567||606,629||1,151,310||2,191,815|
|Number of lock-outs||10||3||8||8||6||17||50|
|Number of work-people directly involved in lock-outs||4,036||302||1,050||1,334||23,742||11,197||67,872|
In the tabulation of causes or objects of disputes the work-people are entered as many times as there are causes. During the period 1900 to 1906 questions of wages were the predominating cause of dispute.
Twenty-five% of the work-people were involved in disputes during 1900 to 1906 which resulted in favour of the employers, 13% in disputes which resulted in favour of the work-people, and 62% in disputes which were compromised.
The British Colonies.
Canada.—Statistics of disputes are published by the department of labour. During the seven years 1901 to 1907 the total number of disputes recorded was 859, the number each year being as follows:—
In 1904 the number of work-people involved was 15,665; in 1905, 16,127; in 1906, 26,014 and in 1907, 34,972. The number of working days lost during the same four years were 278,956, 284,140, 489,775 and 613,986 respectively. Of the total number of disputes in the seven years (859), 208 occurred in the building trades, 139 in the metal trades, 79 in the clothing trades, 62 in the mining industry, 60 in the transport trades and 48 in the food and tobacco preparation industry. Of the 740 disputes occurring in the same period for which a cause could be tabulated, 248 were for an increase in wages, 94 against the employment of particular persons, 64 were for both an increase in wages and a decrease in hours of labour, and 45 against a reduction in wages; and of the 841 disputes for which the result could be tabulated, 293 were in favour of the employers, 250 were in favour of the work-people, 200 were settled by compromise, and the balance (98) were indefinite in their settlement. Four of the Canadian provinces, Ontario, Nova Scotia, British Columbia and Quebec, and the Dominion government have enacted laws with a view to the peaceful settlement of industrial disputes. Under the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act of 1907 strikes and lock-outs are unlawful in industries termed public utilities prior to or during a reference of such dispute to a board of conciliation, a provision which is enforced by heavy penalties. Thirty days' notice of intended changes in wages or hours have to be given under the act.
Australia and New Zealand.—Four of the Australian states (Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia and Western Australia) and the Commonwealth as a whole have enacted laws with a view to the peaceable settlement of disputes between employers and work-people, but the laws of Victoria and South Australia are inoperative though unrepealed. These two states and Queensland have, however, established wages boards which tend to prevent disputes on the question most frequently the cause of strikes or lock-outs. The original inspiration of the conciliation and arbitration laws arose from the great strikes of 1890 to 1892, which turned to a great extent on the attempt of labour unions to secure a monopoly of employment. They all ended in the defeat of the work-people and in a great weakening of trade unionism in the colony.
In New Zealand a law has also been in force since 1894 for the encouragement of the formation of industrial unions and associations, and to facilitate the settlement of industrial disputes. Strikes and lock-outs are now illegal in New Zealand.
official publications on strikes and lock-outs: Reports of the Chief Labour Correspondent of the Board of Trade on Strikes and Lock-outs (annually from 1888); Labour Gazette (Board of Trade, monthly from May 1893); Reports of Royal Commission on Labour (1891-1894); Report of the Royal Commission on Trade Disputes and Trade Combinations (1906); Third Abstract of Foreign Labour Statistics (Board of Trade, 1906—Section on Trade Disputes), and the publication of the offices given as the authorities for the strike statistics of the various foreign countries and colonies. (See also list of authorities on Trade Unions andArbitration and Conciliation.) (X.)
The first recourse to a strike in the United States occurred in 1740 or 1741, when a combined strike of journeymen bakers occurred in New York City. An information was filed in 1741 against the strikers for conspiracy not to bake until their wages were raised. On this they were tried and convicted, but it does not appear that any sentence was ever passed. In May 1796 an association of journeymen shoemakers in Philadelphia ordered a “turn-out” or strike to secure an increase of wages, and again in 1798, for the same purpose, both strikes being