Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/1074

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Charleston, the battles of Camden and Guildford court-house, and the surrender of Yorktown, returning a regimental lieutenant and an army captain, as was then usual in the Guards. Ten years later, as captain and lieutenant-colonel, he was present with the duke of York's army in the Netherlands and in northern France. He took part in the sieges and battles of the 1793 campaign, Valenciennes, Lincelles, Dunkirk and Lannoy. In the following year, now at the head of his battalion, he was present at Landrecies and at Pont-a-Chin or Tournay, and when the tide turned against the allies, he shared with his guards in the discomforts of the retreat. As a brigadier-general he served in Portugal in 1796, and in Minorca in 1799. At Alexandria, in 1801, his handling of his brigade called forth special commendation in general orders, and a year later he became substantive major-general. After two years in command of a brigade in Kent, Stuart went with Sir James Craig to the Mediterranean. The English were employed along with Lacy's Russians in the defence of the kingdom of Naples, but Austerlitz led to the recall of the Russian contingent, and the British soon afterwards evacuated Italy. Thus exposed, Naples fell to the advancing troops of Massena, but Gaeta still held out for King Ferdinand, and Massena's main force soon became locked up in the siege of this fortress. Stuart, who was in temporary command, realized the weakness of the French position in Calabria, and on the 1st of July 1806 swiftly disembarked all his available forces in the gulf of S. Euphemia. On the 4th the British, 4800 strong, won the celebrated victory of Maida over Reynier's detachment. Nothing, however, was done to follow up this success, as Stuart was too weak to shake Massena's foothold in Naples. After besieging and taking the castle of Scylla, the little force returned to Messina. Besides the dignity of count of Maida from the court of Palermo, Stuart received the thanks of parliament and an annuity of £1000, as well as the K.C.B. Superseded by two other generals, Fox and Moore, the latter of whom was his junior, Stuart came home in 1806. A year later, however, as a lieutenant-general, he received the Mediterranean command, which he held until 1810. His operations were confined to south Italy, where Murat, king of Naples, held the mainland, and the British and Neapolitan troops held Sicily for the Bourbon king. Of the events of this time may be mentioned the failure to relieve Colonel Hudson Lowe at Capri, the expedition against Murat 's gunboats in the bay of Naples and the second siege of Scylla. The various attempts made by Murat to cross the straits uniformly failed, though on one occasion the French actually obtained a footing in the island. In 1810 Stuart returned to England. He died at Clifton in 181 5. Two months previously he had received the G.C.B.

STUART, JOHN M‘DOUALL (1818–1866), South Australian explorer, was born at Dysart in Fifeshire, Scotland, in 1818, and arrived in the colony about 1839. He accompanied Captain Sturt's 1844–1845 expedition as draughtsman, and between 1858 and 1862 he made six expeditions into the interior, the last of which brought him on the 25th of July to the shores of the Indian Ocean at Van Diemen's Gulf, at the mouth of the Adelaide River. Stuart was not the first to cross the island continent from south to north; that honour belongs to the Burke and Wills expedition, which reached the Gulf of Carpentaria on the 6th of February 1861. Stuart returned to Adelaide exhausted and broken, and never recovered from the effects of the great privations which he suffered. He returned to England, where he died on the 5th of June 1866. Stuart was rewarded with £3000 and a grant of 1000 sq. m. of grazing country in the interior rent free for seven years. His name is perpetuated by Central Mount Stuart.

STUART, MOSES (1780–1852), American biblical scholar, was born in Wilton, Connecticut, on the 26th of March 1780. He was reared on a farm; graduated with highest honours at Yale in 1799; in 1802 was admitted to the Connecticut bar, and was appointed a tutor at Yale, where he remained for two years; and in 1806 became pastor of the Centre (Congregational) Church of New Haven. In 1810 he was appointed professor of sacred literature in the Andover Theological Seminary, organized in 1808. Here he succeeded Eliphalet Pearson (1752–1826), the first preceptor of the Phillips (Andover) Academy and in 1786–1806 professor of Hebrew and Oriental languages at Harvard. Stuart himself then knew hardly more than the elements of Hebrew and not very much more Greek than Hebrew; in 1810–1812 he prepared for the use of his students a Hebrew grammar which they copied day by day from his manuscript; in 1813 he printed his Grammar, which appeared in an enlarged form, "with a copious syntax and praxis," in 1821, and was republished in England by Dr Pusey in 1831. He gradually made the acquaintance of German works in hermeneutics, first Schleusner, Seiler and Gesenius, and taught himself German, arousing much suspicion and distrust among his colleagues by his unusual studies. But his recognition soon came, partly as a result of his Letter to Dr Charming on the Subject of Religious Liberty (1830), but more largely through the growing favour shown to German philology and critical methods. In 1848 he resigned his chair at Andover. He died in Andover on the 4th of January 1852. He has been called the " father of exegetical studies in America." He contributed largely by his teaching to the renewal of foreign missionary zeal—of his 1500 students more than 100 became foreign missionaries, among them such skilled translators as Adoniram Judson, Elias Riggs and William G. Schauffler.

Among his more important publications were: Winer's Greek Grammar of the New Testament (1825), with Edward Robinson; Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews (1827–1828); Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (1832); Commentary on the Apocalypse (1845); Miscellanies (1846); Gesenius's Hebrew Grammar (1846), a version which involved Stuart in a long controversy with T. J. Conant, the earlier, and possibly more scholarly, translator of Gesenius; Commentary on Ecclesiastes (1851), and Commentary on the Book of Proverbs (1852).

See the memorial sermons by Edwards A. Park (Boston, 1852) and William Adams (New York, 1852).

STUBBS [Stubbe], JOHN (c. 1543–1591), English pamphleteer, was born in Norfolk about 1543. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and after studying law at Lincoln's Inn, took up his residence at Thelveton, Norfolk. His views were Puritan, and he regarded with disgust the negotiations for a marriage between Queen Elizabeth and the duke of Anjou. In 1579 he put his opinions into a pamphlet entitled The Discoverie of a Gaping Gulf whereinto England is like to be Swallowed by another French Marriage. The circulation of this pamphlet was prohibited, and Stubbs,' his printer, and publisher were tried at Westminster, found guilty, and sentenced to have their right hands cut off. The printer was subsequently pardoned, but in the case of Stubbs and his publisher the sentence was duly carried out. Stubbs protested his loyalty from the first. His right hand having been cut off, he removed his hat with his left, and cried "God Save the Queen!" before fainting away. He was subsequently imprisoned for eighteen months. On being released he continued to write, publishing, among other pamphlets, a reply to Cardinal Allen's Defence of the English Catholics. He died in 1591 at Havre, France, where he seems to have gone to volunteer for military service under Henry of Navarre.

STUBBS [Stubbes], PHILIP (c. 1555–c. 1610), English pamphleteer, was born about 1555. He is reputed to have been a brother or near relation of John Stubbs (q.v.). He was educated at Cambridge arid subsequently at Oxford, but did not take a degree, spending the greater portion of his time travelling about the country. He started writing about 1581, and in 1583 published The Anatomie of Abuses. This consisted of a virulent attack on the manners, customs, amusements and fashions of the period, and is still valuable for its copious information on those matters. In 1591 Stubbs published A Christal Glass for Christian Women, of which at least seven editions were called for, and he followed this with other semi-devotional works. He died, probably, about 1610.

STUBBS, WILLIAM (1825–1901), English historian and bishop of Oxford, son of William Morley Stubbs, solicitor, of Knaresborough, Yorkshire, was born on the 21st of June 1825, and was educated at the Ripon grammar school and Christ Church,