national galleries and the Hamburg Museum, affords convincing proof of his talent for plastic art. Among his paintings the best known are " Sin " and " War," at the Munich Pinakothek, " The Sphinx," " The Crucifixion," " The Rivals," " Paradise Lost," " Oedipus," " Temptation," and " Lucifer." Though Stuck was one of the leaders of the Munich Sezession, he enjoyed an appointment of professor at the academy.
STUCLEY (or Stukely), THOMAS (c. 1525-1578), English adventurer, son of Sir Hugh Stucley, of Affleton, near Ilfracombe, a knight of the body to King Henry VIII., ^as supposed by some of his contemporaries to have been an illegitimate son of the king. He was a standard-bearer at Boulogne from 1547 to 1550, entered the service of the duke of Somerset, and after his master's 'arrest in 1551a warrant was issued against him, but he succeeded in escaping to France, where he served in the French army. His military talents brought him under the notice of Montmorency, and he was sent with a letter of recommendation from Henry II. of France to Edward VI. On his arrival he proceeded on the 16th of September 1552 to reveal the French plans for the capture of Calais and for a descent upon England, the furtherance of which had, according to his account, been the object of his mission to England. Northumberland evaded the payment of any reward to Stucley, and sought to gain the friend- ship of the French king by pretending to disbelieve Stucley's statements. Stucley, who may well have been the originator of the plans adopted by the French, was imprisoned in the Tower for some months. A prosecution for debt on his release in August 1553 compelled him to become a soldier of fortune once more, but he returned to England in December 1554 in the train of Philibert, duke of Savoy, after obtaining security against his creditors. He temporarily improved his fortunes by marry- ing an heiress, Anne Curtis, but in a few months had to return to the duke of Savoy's service. As early as 1558 he was sum- moned before the council on a charge of piracy, but was acquitted on the ground of insufficient evidence. In 1562 he obtained a warrant permitting him to bring French ships into English ports although England and France were nominally at peace. With six ships, one of which was supplied by Queen Elizabeth, he started buccaneering against French, Spanish and Portuguese ships, though his commission was concerned with an expedition to Florida. Repeated remonstrances on the part of the offended powers compelled Elizabeth to disavow Stucley, who surrendered in 1565, but his prosecution was merely formal.
He had met Shane O'Neill at the English court in the winter of 1561-1562, and was employed in 1566 by Sir Henry Sidney in a vain effort to induce the Irish chief to enter into negotiations with the government. Sidney desired to allow Stucley to purchase the estates and office of Sir Nicholas Bagnall, marshal of Ireland, for Â£3000, but Elizabeth refused to permit the transaction. Undeterred by this failure, Stucley bought lands and the office.of seneschal of Wexford from Sir Nicholas Heron, but in June 1 568 he was dismissed, and in the next year im- prisoned in Dublin Castle on a charge of high treason, but was released in October. He now offered his services to Fenelon, the French ambassador in London, and was thenceforward continuously engaged in schemes against Elizabeth. Philip II. invited him to Madrid and loaded him with honours. He was known at the Spanish court by the curious title of "duke of Ireland," and was established with a handsome allowance in a villa near Madrid. He was knighted in 1571, and prepared to become a member of a religious order of knighthood. His credit with Spain was seriously injured by another Irish malcon- tent, Maurice Gibbon, archbishop of Cassel; but Stucley, who now desired to leave Spain, only obtained his passports after Elizabeth had demanded his dismissal. He commanded three galleys under Don John of Austria at the battle of Lepanto. His exploits restored him to favour at Madrid, and on the 2nd of March 1572 he was at Seville, offering to hold the narrow seas against the English with a fleet of twenty ships. In four years (1570-1574) he is said to have received over 27,000 ducats from Philip II. Wearied by the Spanish king's delays he sought more serious assistance from the new pope, Gregory XIII., who aspired to make his illegitimate son, Giacomo Buoncompagno, king of Ireland. He set sail from Civita Vecchia in March 1578, but put into Lisbon, where he was to meet his confederate, James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald, and to secure better ships before sailing for Ireland. There he was turned from his purpose by King Sebastian, with whom he sailed for Morocco. He com- manded the centre in the battle of Alcazar on the 4th of August 1578, and was killed, in fair fight apparently, though tradition asserted that he was murdered by his Italian soldiers after the battle.
Stucley's adventurous career made considerable impression on his contemporaries. A play generally assigned to George Peele, The Battell of Alcazar . . . with the Death of Captain Stubbly, printed by E. Allde in 1594, was probably acted in 1592, and is perhaps identical with a popular piece referred to by Henslowe as Muley surnamed Abdelmilech. It deals with Stucley's arrival in Lisbon and his Moorish expedition, but in a long speech before his death he recapitulates the events of his life. A later piece, The Famous History of the Life and Death of Captain Thomas Stukeley, printed for Thomas Panyer (1605), which is possibly the Stewtley played, according to Henslowe, on the 11th of December 1596, is a biographical piece dealing with successive episodes, and seems to be a patchwork of older plays on Don Antonio and on Stucley. His adventures also form the subject of various ballads.
There is a detailed biography of Stucley, based chiefly on the English, Venetian and Spanish state papers, in R. Simpson's edition of the 1605 play (School of Shakespeare, 1878, vol. 1.), where the Stucley ballads are also printed. References in contemporary poetry are quoted by Dyce in his introduction to the Battle of Alcazar in Peek's Works.
STUD. (1) A number of horses kept for the purpose of breeding, also the place or establishment where they are kept; similarly, a "stud horse," a stallion, " stud groom," the head groom of a stud, "stud-book," the register containing the pedigree of thoroughbred horses. The word in Old English is stood, and cognate forms are found in Icelandic and Danish, cf, also German Gestüt; steed, now a literary word for horse, meant in Old English (steda) a stud-horse, and is the same as stud in origin. The root to which the word is referred is sta-, to stand. A stud meant, therefore, an establishment, (2) A word which is used of many different objecte, the primary meaning being a " prop " or support. The Old English word is studu, and cognates are found in Danish, Swedish and Icelandic. The ultimate origin is also the root sta-, to stand. The chief applications of the term are as follows: in architecture, to a post; quarter or upright in wooden partitions; to the transverse pieces of iron which strengthen the links of a chain; to a boss or knob inserted on a belt, collar, or piece of armour, often decorated and forming an ornamentation; and, particularly, to a species of button, consisting of a rounded head, neck and flat base, used for fastening a collar, shirt, &c.
STUDER, BERNHARD (1794–1887), Swiss geologist, was born at Buren, near Berne, in August 1794. Although educated as a clergyman, he became so interested in geology at the university of Gottingen that he devoted his life to its pursuit. He subsequently studied at Freiburg, Berlin and Paris, and in 1816 was appointed teacher of mathematics and physics in the Berne Academy. In 1825 he published Beyträge zu einer Monographie der Molasse. Later on he commenced his detailed investigations of the western Alps, and published in 1834 his Geologie der westlichen Schweizer-Alpen. In the same year, largely through his influence, the university of Berne was established and he became the first professor of mineralogy. His Geologie der Schweiz in two vols. (1851–1853), and his geological maps of Switzerland prepared with the assistance of Arnold Escher von der Linth, are monuments of his research. In 1859 he organized the geological survey of Switzerland, being appointed president of the commission, and retaining this position until the close of his life. It has been remarked by Marcou that Studer was present at the first meeting of the Société helvétique des sciences naturelles at Geneva on the 6th of October 1815, and remained a member during 72 years. He was awarded the Wollaston medal by the Geological Society of London, 1879. He died at Berne on the 2nd of May 1887.
Obituary by Jules Marcou, Ann. rep. amer. acad. set. for 1888.