Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/1077

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STUKELEY, WILLIAM (1687–1765), English antiquary, was born at Holbeach, Lincolnshire, on the 7th of November 1687; the son of a lawyer. After taking his M.B. degree at Cambridge, he went to London and studied medicine at St Thomas's Hospital. In 1710 he started in practice in Lincolnshire, removing in 1717 to London. In the same year he became a fellow of the Royal Society, and, in 1718, joined in the establishment of the Society of Antiquaries, acting for nine years as its secretary. ln 1719 he took his M.D. degree and in 1720 became a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, publishing in the same year his first contribution to antiquarian literature. His principal work, an elaborate account of Stonehenge, appeared in 1740, and he wrote copiously on other supposed Druid remains, becoming familiarly known as the "Arch-Druid." In 1729 he took holy orders, and, after holding two livings in Lincolnshire, was appointed rector of a parish in Bloomsbury, London. He died in London on the 3rd of March 1765.

STUMPF, JOHANN (1500–1576), one of the chief writers on Swiss history and topography, was born at Bruchsal (near Carlsruhe). He was educated there and at Strassburg and Heidelberg. In 1520 he was received as a cleric or chaplain into the order of the Knights Hospitallers or of St John of Jerusalem, was sent in 1521 to the preceptory of that order at Freiburg in Breisgau, ordained priest in Basel, and in 1522 placed in charge cf the preceptory at Bubikon (north of Rapperswil, in the canton of Zürich). But Stumpf soon went over to the Protestants, was present at the great Disputation in Berne (1528), and took part in the first Kappel War (1520). He had carried over with him most of his parishioners whom he continued to care for, as the Protestant pastor at Bubikon, till 1543, then becoming pastor at Stammheim (same canton) till 1561, when he retired to Zürich (of which he had been made a burgher in 1548), where he lived in retirement till his death in 1576. In 1529 he married the first of his four wives, a daughter of Heinrich Brennwald (1478–1551), who wrote a work (still in MS.) on Swiss history, and stimulated his son-in-law to undertake historical studies. Stumpf made wide researches, with this object, for many years, and undertook also several journeys, of which that in 1544 to Engelberg and through the Valais seems to be the most important, perhaps because his original diary has been preserved to us. The fruit of his labours (completed at the end of 1546) was published in 1548 at Zürich in a huge folio of 934 pages (with many fine wood engravings, coats of arms, maps, &c.), under the title of Gemeiner loblicher Eydgnossenschaft Stetten, Landen, und Volckeren chronikwirdiger Thaaten Beschreybung (an extract from it was published in 1554, under the name of Schwytzer Chronika, while new and greatly enlarged editions of the original work were issued in 1586 and 1606). The woodcuts are best in the first edition, and it remained till Scheuchzer's day (early 18th century) the chief authority on its subject. Stumpf also published a monograph (very remarkable for the date) on the emperor Henry IV. (1556) and a set of laudatory verses (Lobsprüche) as to each of the thirteen Swiss cantons (1573).  (W. A. B. C.) 

STURDZA, or Sturza, the name of an ancient Rumanian family, of unknown origin, which probably came from Trebizond and settled in Moldavia. The Sturdza family has been long and intimately associated with the government first of Moldavia and afterwards of Rumania. Its members belong to two main divisions, which trace their descent respectively from John (Ioan) or from Alexander (Sandu), the sons of Kirak Sturdza, who lived in the 17th century, and may be regarded as the founder of the family.

1. To the first division belongs Michael [Michail] Sturdza (1795-1884), who was prince of Moldavia from 1834 to 1849. A man of liberal education, he established the first high school, a kind of university, in Jassy. He brought scholars from foreign countries to act as teachers, and gave a very powerful stimulus to the educational development of the country. In 1844 he decreed the emancipation of the gipsies. Until then the gipsies had been treated as slaves and owned by the Church or by private landowners; they had been bought and sold in the open market. Michael Sturdza also attempted the secularization of monastic establishments, which was carried out by Prince Cuza in 1864, and the utilization of their endowments for national purposes. He quelled the attempted revolution in 1848 without bloodshed by arresting all the conspirators and expelling them from the country. Under his rule the internal development of Moldavia made immense progress; roads were built, industry developed, and Michael is still gratefully remembered by the people.

See Michel Stourdza et son administration (Brussels, 1834); Michel

Stourdza, ancien prince regnant de Moldavie (Paris, 1874); A. A. C. Sturdza, Règne de Michel Sturdza, prince de Moldavie 1834-1849

(Paris, 1907).

2. Gregory [Grigorie] Sturdza (1821-1901), son of the above, was educated in France and Germany, became a general in the Ottoman army under the name of Muklis Pasha, and afterwards attained the same rank in the Moldavian army. He was a candidate for the Moldavian throne in 1859, and subsequently a prominent member of the Russophil party in the Rumanian parliament. He wrote Lois fondamentales de l'univers (Paris 1891).

3. John [Ioan] Sturdza, prince of Moldavia (1822-1828), was the most famous descendant of Alexander Sturdza. Immediately after the Greek revolution, Prince John Sturdza took an active part in subduing the roving bands of Greek Hetairists in Moldavia; he transformed the Greek elementary schools into Rumanian schools and laid the foundation for that scientific national development which Prince Michael Sturdza continued after 1834. In 1828 the Russians entered the country and took Prince John prisoner. He died in exile.

4. Alexander [Alexandru] Sturdza (1791-1854), Russian publicist and diplomatist, was a member of the same family, born in Bessarabia and educated in Germany. After entering the Russian diplomatic service, he wrote Betrachtungen über die Lehre und den Geist der orthodoxen Kirche (Leipzig, 1817). His Mémoire sur l'état actuel de l'Allemagne, written at the request of the tsar during the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, was an attack on the German universities, repeated in Coup d'œil sur les universites de l'Allemagne (Aix, 1818). His other important works are La Grèce en 1821 (Leipzig, 1822) and Œuvres posthumes religieuses, historiques, philosophiques et littéraires (5 vols., Paris, 1858-1861).

5. Demetrius [Dimitrie] Sturdza, Rumanian statesman, was born in 1833 at Jassy, and educated there at the Academia Michaileana. He continued his studies in Germany, took part in the political movements of the time, and was private secretary to Prince Cuza. Demetrius afterwards turned against Cuza, joined John Bratianu, and became a member of the so-called Liberal government. In 1899 he was elected leader of the party in succession to Bratianu and was four times prime minister (see Rumania: History). Though a man of great capacity for work, he represented the narrowest nationalism, and through his enmity to all that was “alien” did more than any other man to retard the political and industrial development of the country. He was appointed permanent secretary of the Rumanian Academy, and became a recognized authority on Rumanian numismatics. As secretary of the academy he was instrumental in assisting the publication of the collections of historic documents made by Hurmuzaki (30 vols., Bucharest, 1876-1897), and other acts and documents (Bucharest, 1900 sqq.), besides a number of minor political pamphlets of transitory value.

(M. G.)

STURE, an ancient patrician family of Sweden, the most notable members of which were the following:

1. Sten Gustafsson, commonly called Sten Sture the Elder (1440-1503). In 1464 he came prominently forward in support of Bishop Kettil Karlsson Vasa in his struggle against Christian I. of Denmark, and showed great ability in winning over the peasants and making soldiers of them. In 1470 we find him in the forefront of the Swedish national leaders and victorious over both Erik Karlsson Vasa and King Christian himself. After the death of Karl Knutsson, commonly called Charles VIII., Sture was elected regent of Sweden, and from 1470 to 1497 displayed some