a demonstrator of anatomy, and was assistant surgeon to King's College Hospital for several years; and in the autumn of 1847 he was appointed surgeon and lecturer on pathology at his old school, St Thomas's, where, with progressive changes, he continued to remain an officer. His life was divided between two great pursuits—the career of a surgeon, and the mastery and solution of many of the great problems of sanitary science and reform. In the spring of 1844 he gained the first Astley Cooper prize by a physiological essay on the thymus gland, and the following year was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. In 1847 he gave his first lecture at St Thomas's Hospital, on the " Aims and Philosophic Method of Pathological Research," followed a little later by lectures on general pathology in relation to the principles of diagnosis, and the treatment of disease. These lectures were of great importance at the time, and of the utmost value in directing energy into new and profitable channels of work. Simon published many clinical surgical lectures of the greatest importance, and contributed a masterly article on " Inflammation " to Holmes's System of Surgery, which has become a classic of its kind. It was, however, on his appointment in 1848 as medical officer of health to the City of London, and afterwards to the government, that Simon's great abilities found scope for congenial exercise. He stimulated and guided the development of sanitary science, until it reached in England the highest degree of excellence, and gave an example to the civilized world. It is impossible to overestimate the value of Sir John Simon's work, or the importance of his influence in the furtherance of the public health and the prevention of disease, and in inculcating right methods of medical government. In 1878, after filling other offices in the Royal College of Surgeons, he became its president, and in 1887 was created K.C.B. It was largely due to his advocacy that the new St Thomas's Hospital was rebuilt on its present site after it was compelled to leave its old habitation near London Bridge. As a surgeon, Simon's work came second to his interest in sanitary science, but he claimed priority over Cock in the operation of perineal puncture of the urethra in cases of retention from stricture. He died on the 23rd of July 1904. (W. MacC.)
SIMON, JULES FRANÇOIS (1814-1896), French statesman and philosopher, was born at Lorient on the 27th of December 1814. His father was a linen-draper from Lorraine, who abjured Protestantism before his second marriage, of which Jules Simon was the son, with a Catholic Breton. The family name was Suisse, which Simon dropped in favour of his third prenomen. By dint of considerable sacrifice he was able to attend a seminary at Vannes, and was for a short time usher in a school before, in 1833, he became a student at the Êcole Normale in Paris. There he came in contact with Victor Cousin, who sent him to Caen and then to Versailles to teach philosophy. He helped Cousin, without receiving any recognition, in his translations from Plato, and in 1839 became his deputy in the chair of philosophy at the Sorbonne, with the meagre salary of 83 francs per month. He also lectured on the history of philosophy at the ficole Normale. At this period he edited the works of Malebranche (2 vols., 1842), of Descartes (1842), Bossuet (1842) and of Arnauld (1843), and in 1844-1845 appeared the two volumes of his Histoire de l'êcole d' Alexandrie. He became a regular contributor to the Revue des deux mondes, and in 1847, with Amédée Jacques and Émile Saisset, founded the Liberté de penser, with the intention of throwing off the yoke of Cousin, but he retired when Jacques allowed the insertion of an article advocating the principles of collectivism, with which he was at no time in sympathy. In 1848 he represented the Côtes-du-Nord in the National Assembly, and next year entered the Council of State, but was retired on account of his republican opinions. His refusal to take the oath of allegiance to the government of Louis Napoleon after the coup d'état was followed by his dismissal from his professorship, and he devoted himself to philosophical and political writings of a popular order. Le Devoir (1853), which was tpanslated into modern Greek and Swedish, was followed by La Religion naturelle (1856, Eng. trans., 1887), La Liberté de conscience (1857), La Liberté politique (1859), La Liberté civile (1859), L'Ouvriere (1861), L'Êcole (1864), Le Travail (1866), L'Ouvrier de huit ans (1867) and others. In 1863 he was returned to the Corps Legislatif for the 8th circonscription of the Seine, and supported "les Cinq" in their opposition to the government. He became minister of instruction in the government of National Defence on the 5th of September 1870. After the capitulation of Paris in January 1871 he was sent down to Bordeaux to prevent the resistance of Gambetta to the peace. But at Bordeaux Gambetta, who had issued a proclamation excluding from the elections officials under the Empire, was all powerful. He affected to dispute Jules Simon's credentials, and issued orders for his arrest. Meanwhile Simon had found means of communication with Paris, and on the 6th of February was reinforced by Eugène Pelletan, E. Arago and Garnier-Pagès. Gambetta resigned, and the ministry of the Interior, though nominally given to Arago to avoid the appearance of a personal issue, was really ia Simon's hands. Defeated in the department of the Seine, he sat for the Marne in the National Assembly, and resumed the portfolio of Education in the first cabinet of M. Thiers's presidency. He advocated free primary education yet sought to conciliate the clergy by all the means in his power; but no concessions removed the hostility of Mgr. Dupanloup, who presided over the commission appointed to consider his draft of an elementary education bill. The reforms he was actually able to carry out were concerned with secondary education. He encouraged the study of living languages, and limited the attention given to the making of Latin verse; he also encouraged independent methods at the Êcole Normale, and set up a school at Rome where members of the French school of Athens should spend some time. He retained office until a week before the fall of Thiers in 1873. He was regarded by the monarchical right as one of the most dangerous obstacles in the way of a restoration, which he did as much as any man (except perhaps the comte de Chambord himself) to prevent, but by the extreme left he was distrusted for his moderate views, and Gambetta never forgave his victory at Bordeaux. In 1875 he became a member of the French Academy and a life senator, and in 1876, on the resignation of M. Dufaure, was summoned to form a cabinet. He replaced anti-republican functionaries in the civil service by republicans, and held his own until the 3rd of May 1877, when he adopted a motion carried by a large majority in the Chamber inviting the cabinet to use all means for the repression of clerical agitation. His clerical enemies then induced Marshal MacMahon to take advantage of a vote on the press law carried in Jules Simon's absence from the Chamber to write him a letter regretting that he no longer preserved his influence in the Chamber, and thus practically demanding his resignation. His resignation in response to this act of the president, known as the " Seize Mai," which he might have resisted by an appeal to the Chamber, proved his ruin, and he never again held office. He justified his action by his fear of providing an opportunity for a coup d'état on the part of the marshal. The rejection (1880) of article 7 of Ferry's Education Act, by which the profession of teaching would have been forbidden to members of non-authorized congregations, was due to his intervention. He was in fact the chief of the left centre opposed to the radicalism of Jules Grevy and Gambetta. He was director of the Gaulois from 1879 to 1881, and his influence in the country among moderate republicans was retained by his articles in the Matin from 1882 onwards, in the Journal des Débats, which he joined in 1886, and in the Temps from 1890.