records of numbers and movements such as were the basis of the existing re-edited narrative.
The history of the Egyptian settlements has been investigated. They began in the 1st Dynasty, shown by the tablet of the conquest by King Semerkhet (5280 B.C.) above the mines of turquoise at Wady Maghara. Seneferu (4750 B.C.) was already working at Serabit for turquoise. Other kings who left records here are Sanekht (IIIrd Dynasty), Khufu (IVth), Sahura, Ranuser, Menkauhor (Vth), Amenemhat I., Senusert I., Senusert II., Senusert III., Amenemhat II., Amenemhat III., Amenemhat IV. (XIIth), Aahmes I., Amenhotep I., Tahutmes I., Hatshepsut, Tahutmes III., Tahutmes IV., Amenhotep III. (XVIIIth), Rameses I., Sety I., Rameses II., Merenptah, Sety II., Tausert, Setnekht (XIXth), Rameses III., IV., V. and VI. (XXth). The monuments are mostly inscriptions recording the mining expeditions and offerings made to the goddess of turquoise. The original shrine of the goddess was a cave; this was hewn out and buildings were gradually added before it to a length of 230 ft. The records show that no fewer than twenty-five different grades of officials took part in the work of mining, which was highly organized as regards direction, technical ability, labour and transport, often as many as 700 men being employed. Over 400 objects with kings' names have been found in the fragments of the offerings which were left in the shrine. The worship at Serabit was that of Hathor, mistress of turquoise. She is identical with Athtar or Ishtar, the Semitic goddess of Arabia. The features of the worship were entirely Semitic and not Egyptian. An enormous mass of burnt-offerings is shown by the bed of ashes before the sacred cave; tanks for ablutions are found in the temple courts, altars of incense are in the shrine itself, and also conical stones; and chambers or shelters for dreaming before the temple are a main feature. All of these belong to Semitic worship, and they show that before Mosaism the elements of the worship were the same as are found in later times.
For all the recent research see W. M. Flinders Petrie, Researches in Sinai (1906).
SINAIA, a town of Rumania, about 12 m. S. of the Hungarian frontier at Predeal, on the railway from Ploesci to Kronstadt in Transylvania. Pop. (1900), 2210. Sinaia resembles a large model village, widely scattered among the pine forests of the lower Carpathians, and along the banks of the Prahova, a swift alpine stream. The monastery of Sinaia, founded by Prince Michael Cantacuzino in 1695, was the residence of the royal family until the present chateau was built. It consists of two courts surrounded by low buildings. In the centre of each court is a small church built in the Byzantine style. The monks possess a library, in which are kept valuable jewels belonging to the Cantacuzene family. Castle Peles or Pelesh, the modern palace, named after the hill on which it stands, is of a mixed style of architecture. The interior is fitted with magnificent wood carvings and stained glass windows illustrating the principal scenes of “Carmen Sylva's” writings. Until 1850 Sinaia consisted of little more than the monastery and a group of huts. In 1864, however, the monastic estate was assigned to the Board of Civil Hospitals, by which a hospital and baths were opened and the mineral springs developed. Sinaia soon became the favourite summer resort of Bucharest society, and rapidly developed in all its equipment.
SINALOA, a N. state of Mexico, bounded N. by Sonora and Chihuahua, E. by Durango, S. by Tepic, and W. by the Gulf of California, with a coast line of nearly 400 m. Area, 33,671 sq. m. Pop. (1900), 296,701, largely Indians. The surface consists of a narrow coastal zone where tropical conditions prevail, a broad belt of mountainous country covered by the ranges of the Sierra Madre Occidental and their intervening valleys where oak and pine forests are to be found, and an intervening zone among the foothills of the Sierra Madre up to an elevation of 2000 ft., where the conditions are subtropical. The state is traversed by numerous streams, the largest of which have broad valleys among the foothills. The largest of these are the Culiacán, Fuerte and Sinaloa, the last two having short navigable courses across the lowlands.
Rain is plentiful everywhere, except in the extreme north, where the conditions are arid. The climate of the low-lying coast lands is hot and malarious, but in the mountains it is cool and healthy. Cereals and mezcal are produced on the uplands, and sugar, rum, coffee, tobacco, grape spirits and fruit in the lower zones. There are excellent cotton lands in the state and the production of this staple was largely developed during the American Civil War, but it has since declined. Grazing receives considerable attention in the uplands, where the temperature is favourable and the pastureage good, and hides are largely exported. Mining, however, is the chief industry, Sinaloa being one of the richest mineral-producing states in the republic. Gold, silver, copper, iron and lead are found. There are also salt deposits and mineral springs. The best-known silver mines are the Rosario, from which about $90,000,000 had been extracted up to the last decade of the 19th century, and the Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de los Reyes, discovered early in the 19th century and yielding over $85,000,000 before its close. The forest products of the state include rubber, resins, cabinet and dye-woods, deerskins, orchilla and ixtle fibre. Up to the beginning of the 20th century Sinaloa had only one short railway, which connected Culiacán with its port Altata. Since then the Mexican branch of the (American) Southern Pacific railway from Nogales to Guaymas has been extended S.E. along the coast. Sinaloa has excellent natural harbours, only two of which—Mazatlán and Altata—are much used. The bays of Agiobampo and Topolobampo are prospective railway terminals with fine harbours. The capital of the state is Culiacán Rosales (commonly called Culiacán), on the Culiacán river 59 m. from its port, Altata, at the mouth of the same river, with which it is connected by rail. It is a well-built town, with some thriving manufactures, including cotton goods, cigarettes, liqueurs, &c. It is the see of a bishop and has a fine cathedral. Culiacán (pop. in 1900, 10,380) is the distributing centre for a large district between Guaymas and Mazatlán. The most important town is Mazatlán, one of the leading ports of Mexico on the Pacific coast, and the commercial centre for S. Sinaloa and N. Durango. Other towns are Mocorito (pop. 9971 in 1895), Sinaloa and Fuerte, all in the N. of the state, Rosario (pop. 8448 in 1900), and San Ignacio in the S.
SINAN PASHA (1515-1596), Turkish soldier and statesman, was an Albanian of low origin. In 1569 he was appointed governor of Egypt and was occupied until 1571 in the conquest of Yemen. In 1574 he commanded the great expedition against Tunis, which, in spite of the brave defence by the Spanish and Italian garrison, was added to the Ottoman empire. In 1580 Sinan commanded the army against Persia and was appointed grand vizier, but was disgraced and exiled in the following year, owing to the rout of his lieutenant Mahommed Pasha, at Gori, in an attempt to provision the Turkish garrison of Tiflis. He subsequently became governor of Damascus and, in 1589, after the great revolt of the Janissaries, was appointed grand vizier for the second time. Another revolt of Janissaries led to his dismissal in 1591, but in 1593 he was again recalled to become grand vizier for the third time, and in the same year he commanded the Turkish army against Hungary. In spite of his victories he was again deposed in February 1595, shortly after the accession of Mahommed III., and banished to Malghara; but in August was in power again and on the march to Wallachia. The unhappy course of this campaign, culminating in the fall of Gran, brought him once more into disfavour, and he was deprived of the seal of office (November 19). The death of his successor, Lala Mahommed, three days later, was looked on as a sign from heaven, and Sinan became grand vizier for the fifth time. He died suddenly on the 3rd of April 1596.
Bold, overbearing and unscrupulous, Sinan recoiled from no baseness to put a rival out of the way; while his insolence was not confined to foreign ambassadors, but was exercised towards his opponents in the sultan's presence. He had a barbarous hatred not only for Christians but for all civilization. The immense fortune which he left is a proof of his rapacity.
Another Sinan Pasha was governor of Anatolia at the time of Mahommed II.'s death in 1481. He was a brother-in-law of Bayezid II. and defeated Prince Jem's troops at Brusa. In Selim I.'s reign he served with great distinction in the Persian and Egyptian campaigns and fell at the battle of Ridania, where the Mamelukes were defeated, in 1517.
A third Sinan Pasha, brother of the grand vizier Rustem Pasha, was grand admiral under Suleiman I. and died about 1553.
See J. v. Hammer-Purgstall, Gesch. des Osmanischen Reiches (2nd ed., Pesth, 1840), and authorities there cited.