Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/161

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145
SINDHI AND LAHNDA

in " corresponds to the strong one in o, and feminine weak forms in "and ' to a strong one in *. In Lahnda weak forms have dropped the final short vowel, and the strong forms end in a (masc.) and i (fern.).

As explained in the articles above referred to, almost the only old case that has survived throughout the declension of both languages is the general oblique. This is used for any oblique case, the particular case required being as a rule further defined by the help of a postposition. The general oblique case, without any denning postposition, is specially employed for the case of the agent. There are also examples of the survival of the old locative and of the old ablative. Thus S. math", top, loc. math', on the top; L. Ambi, at Amb; L. vela, time, rofl-de vile, at the time of food; L. jangil, for jangali, in the forest. This locative is of regular occurrence in the case of Sindhi weak masculine nouns in ". For the old ablative, we have S. ghar", L. ghar, a house, abl. S. gharo, L. ghari, and so others. The locative termination can be referred to the Ap. locative termination -hi or -hi, and the ablative i or 3 to the Ap. -ha or -hit. The nominative plural, and the general oblique case of both numbers are formed as in the following examples: —

Comparison is effected as in Hindostani by putting the noun with which comparison is made in the ablative case. Sometimes special postpositions are employed for this form of the ablative.-


Case.


Singular.


Plural.


Sindhi.


Lahnda.


Sindhi.


Lahnda.


Nominative Accusative . Agent Dative . Ablative

Genitive Locative


ghoro

ghoro

ghore

ghore-khe

ghori,

ghore-kha

ghore-jo

ghore-ml


ghora

ghora

ghore

ghore-nU

ghore-to

ghore-dd ghore-vic


ghoza

ghora

ghor.i

ghoran'-khe

ghoranei,

ghoran'-khi

ghoran'-jo

ghor.an'-mi


ghor.e

ghore

gher.ei

ghoreS-nU

ghor.ei-to

ghorei-di ghorei-vic

The usual pronouns are as follows, pronounced as in German : —

I — S. in, 8, mi or m&; L. mi

In the Lahnda forms a is Singular.

Plural.

Nominative.

Oblique.

Nominative.

Oblique.

Sindhi.

Lahnda.

Sindhi.

Lahnda.

Sindhi.

Lahnda.

Sindhi.

Lahnda.

Weak Noun —

Masc.

ghar" , a house

ghar

ghar"

ghar

ghar"

ghar

gharan', ghara, ghare

ghari

Fern. .

jibh",

jibbh

jibh"

jibbh

jibhtt,

jibbhi

Jibhun',

jibbha

a tongue

Jibha

Jibha, jibhi

ag>,

agg

ag'

agg

ageu

agga

agean",

aggi

fire

aged., dgii

Strong Noun — Masc.

ghoro, a horse

ghora.

ghore

ghore

ghora

ghore

ghoran', ghora, ghori

ghorea

Fern. .

ghori,

ghori

ghori"

ghori

ghoriU

ghorii ghorin',

ghoria a mare

ghoria, ghorii

obi. S. I We— S. S. asi ; my — S. Of us, asadd. Thou-

., mi, mu; L. mi. asl; L. assi; obi. L. assi. Of me, muh"-jo ; L. mera.

our — S. asi-jo; L.

In Lahnda the final short vowel of the weak forms has been dropped, but in some cases the final u of the masculine and the final i of the feminine have been preserved by epenthesis, as explained under the head of phonetics. The origin of the nominative plural and of the various oblique forms is explained in the article Hindo- stani. In the same article is discussed the derivation of most of the postpositions employed to define the various oblique forms and to make real cases. There are as follows: S. khe, L. n-tt, to or for; S. khi, L. to, f rom ; S. jo, sando, L. da, of; S. mi, L. vie, in. It will be observed that the Lahnda forms are identical with those found in Panjabi. In both languages the accusative case is the same as the nominative, unless special definiteness is required, when, as usual in Indo-Aryan vernaculars, the dative is employed in its place. The agent case is the oblique form without any postposition. The S. khe is a corruption of Ap. kaahi, Skr. krte; and similarly kha from Ap. kaahu, Skr. krtdt. S. sando, like the Rajasthani hands and the Kashmiri sand" or hand", is by origin the present participle of the verb, substantive, ghar"-sando, meaning literally " existing (in connexion) with the house," hence " of the house." We may com- pare the Bengali use of haite, on being, to mean " from." All these postpositions are added to the oblique form. We thus get the declension of the strong masculine noun S. ghoro, L. ghora, a

Those, they — S. ho; L. oh,


S. L. t&; obi. S. to; L. ta, ta, tudh. You — S. tavht, avhi; L. tussi; obi. S. tavhi, avhi; L. tussi. Of thee, thy— S. tah e -jd; L. (era. Of you, your — S. tavhi-jo, avhi- jo; L. lusada. tuhada.

This, he, she, it — S. hi; L. eh; obi. S. hin", in"; L. is. These, they — S. he; L. eh, «°n;' obi. S. hin', in'; L. inhi.

That, he, she, it — S. hit; L. oh; obi. S. hun", un"; un; obi. S. hun', un'; L.


L. us. unhi.

That, he, she, it — S. so; obi. tah'. Those, they — S. se; obi. tan'. We should expect corresponding forms for Lahnda, but they are not given in the grammars.

Self — S. pan"; L. ape. Own — S. pih"-jo; L. apna. Cf. Panjabi dp, Kashmiri pan".

Who — S. L. jo; obi. S. jah'; L. ja; plur. nom. S. je; L. jo; obi. S.jan'; L. jinhi.

Who ? — S. ker"; L. kaun; obi. S. kdh'; L. ki; plur. nom. S. kef; L. kaun; obi. S. kan'; L. kinhi.

What? — S. chd; L. ca; obi. S. chd; L. kitt.

Any one — S. L. koi; obi. S. kahi; L. kdhe.

The derivation of most of these forms can be gathered from the article Hindostani. Others, such as assi, tussi, pan", are borrowed from Pisaca.

The north-western group of Indo-Aryan vernaculars, Sindhi, Lahnda, and Kashmiri, are distinguished by the free use which they make of pronominal suffixes. In Kashmiri these are added only to verbs, but in the other two languages they are also added to nouns. These suffixes take the place of personal pronouns in various cases and are as follows : —

First Person.


Second Person.


Third Person.


Singular.


Plural.


Singular.


Plural.


Singular.


Plural.


Nom.


Other Cases.


Nom.


Other Cases.


Nom.


Other Cases.


Nom.


Other Cases.


Nom.


Agent.


Other Cases.


Nom.


Agent.


Other Cases.


Sindhi . Lahnda

horse, as shown in the next column. When there are optional methods of making the oblique form only one is given. The others can be employed in the same way.

As in most other Indo-Aryan vernaculars, the genitive is really a possessive adjective, and agrees with the person or thing possessed in gender, number and case, exactly as in Panjabi.

An adjective agrees with its qualified noun in gender, number and case. In Lahnda, as in Hindostani, the only adjectives which change in these respects are strong adjectives in a. In Sindhi weak forms in " also change the u to ' or " in the feminine. Thus, S. cano, L. canga, good, fem. S. carji, L. cangi; S. nidhar", helpless, fern. nidhar" or nidhar". The plural and oblique forms are made as in the case of nouns. If a postposition is used with the noun it is not also used with the adjective. Thus, L. cangii ghor.ii-dd, of good mares.

All these suffixes are remnants of the full pronominal forms. In all cases they can be at once explained by a reference to the originals in Pisaca, rather than to those of other Indo-Aryan languages.[1] It will here be convenient to consider them only in connexion with nouns. In such cases they are usually in the genitive case. Thus, S. piu, a father; pium", my father; piu', thy father; piuv", your father; pius", his father; piun' or piun", their father. There being in Sindhi no suffix of the genitive plural of the first personal pronoun, there is no compound for " our father." For that, as in the beginning of the Lord's Prayer, we must employ the full expression, asi-jo piu. In Lahnda we have piu, a father; pium, my

  1. See G. A. Grierson, The Pisaca Languages of North-Western India (London, 1906), pp. 44 ff.