Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/327

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in 1831. It possesses a library and a cabinet of specimens. It

has published the Boston Journal of Natural History (8vo, 1837-1863), Memoirs (4to, 1866, &c.) and Proceedings (1841, &c.). The Lyceum of Natural History, New York, was incorporated in 1818 and has published Annals from 1823 (1824, &c.) and Proceedings (1870, &c.). In 1875 the name was changed to New York Academy of Sciences. A number of American naturalists and geologists, having held meetings in various cities between 1840 and 1847, resolved themselves at their Boston congress in the latter year into the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which was incorporated in 1874. Its object is “by periodical and migratory meetings to promote intercourse between American scientists.” It has published Proceedings (1849, &c.). The National Academy of Sciences was incorporated at Washington in 1863 with a view to making the knowledge of specialists available for the service of government. There are two classes of members, those in mathematics and physics and those in natural history. It has issued Annuals (Cambridge, 1865, &c.) and Reports, as well as Memoirs (1866, &c.). The Academies of Sciences at San Francisco (1853), St Louis (1856, incorporated 1857), and Chicago (1857, incorporated 1865) deserve special mention.

Among the remaining societies of a general scientific character are—Albany Inst. (1829), Trans. (1830-1893), Proc. (1873-1882). Ann Arbor, Mich. Ac. of Sc. (1894). Baltimore, Maryland Acad. of Sc., Trans. (1901). Boston, Col. Soc. of Mass. (1892), Trans. Brooklyn Inst. of Arts and Sc. Buffalo, Soc. of Nat. Sc. (1861), Bull. Cincinnati, Soc. of Nat. Hist. (1870), Journal (1878, &c.); Cin. Museum Assoc. (1881). Cleveland, Acad. of Nat. Sc. (1852), Annals and Proc.; The Cleveland Society [Archaeol. Inst. of America] (1893). Columbus, Ohio State Acad. of Sc. (1891), Publ. Des Moines, Iowa Acad. of Sc. (1887), Proc.; Hartford, Sc. Soc. (1896); formerly Hartford Soc. of Nat. Sc. (1885), Bull. (1902, &c.). Indianapolis, Indiana Acad. of Sc. (1885), Proc. (1891, &c.). Ithaca, Amer. Phil. Assoc. (1902). Lincoln, Nebraska Acad. of Sc. (1891), Publ. Los Angeles, South California Acad. of Sc. (1891), Bull. Madison, Wisconsin Acad. of Sc. Arts and Letters, Trans. (1870, &c.). Milwaukee, Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc. (1857), Bull. Minneapolis, Minnesota Acad. of Sc. Bull. (1873, &c.). Minneapolis Acad. of Fine Arts (1883), Bull. (1905). New Orleans, Athenée Louicianais (1876), Comptes Rendus. New York, Amer. Inst. of the City of New York (1829), Journal (1834), Trans. (1841, &c.); Amer. Inst. for Sc. Research (1904), Proc. and Journal. Portland (Maine), Soc. of Nat. Hist. (1850), Proc. (1862, &c.). Poughkeepsie, Vassar, Brothers' Inst. (1874), Proc. (1874, &c., 1876, &c.). Rochester Acad. of Nat. Sc. (1881) Trans. Salem (Mass.), Essex County Nat. Hist. Soc. (1833; now merged in the Essex Institute) published the American Naturalist (1867-1868), afterwards issued by the Peabody Acad. of Science, as well as Proc. (1856, &c.) and Bulletin (1869, &c.). San Francisco, Tech. Soc. of the Pacific Coast (1884), Trans. in Journal of the Assoc. of Engineering Societies. Santa Barbara Society of Natural History (1876), Bull. (1887). Sioux City, Acad. of Sc. and Letters (1887), Proc. (1903, &c.). Topeka, Kansas Acad. of Science (1868), Trans. Washington, Phil. Soc. of Washington (1871), Bull. (1874, &c.). Wilkes-Barré, Wyoming Hist. and Geol. Soc. (1858), Proc. and Coll. (1858, &c.).

France.—The Institut de France (see Academies), which includes five separate academies, stands at the head of all French societies. The Société Philotechnique, founded in 1795 and recognized as of public usefulness by a decree of 11th May 1861, had for its object the encouragement and study of literature, science and the fine arts; literary organ was an Annuaire (1840, &c.). The Société d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie Nationale was founded in 1801 for the amelioration of all branches of French industry, and was recognized by the state in 1824; Bulletin. The Académie Nationale, Agricole, Manufacturière, Commerciale was founded by the duc de Montmorency in 1830, and offers prizes and medals, and brings out a Bulletin (1830, &c.). The Association Française pour l'Avancement des Sciences (1872), founded on the model of the British Association, holds migratory meetings and publishes Comptes rendus. With it has been amalgamated the Association Scientifique de France,

founded by Le Verrier in 1864.
The departmental societies are very numerous and active. The

chief are the following: Abbeville, Soc. d'Émulation (1797), Mém. (1833, &c.). Agen, Soc. d'Agr., Sc. et Arts (1784), Recueil (1800, &c.). Aix, Acad. des Sc., &c. (1829), based on Soc. des Amis de la Sc. (1765), Mém. (1819, &c.). Alais, Soc. Sc. et Litt. (1868), Bull. (1868, &c.). Amiens, Acad., based on Soc. Litt. (1750), Mém. (1835, &c.); Soc. Linnéenne (1838), Mém. (1866, &c.). Angers, Soc. Acad. de Maine-et-Loire (1857), Mém. (1857, &c.); Soc. d'Agr., &c. (1799), Mém. (1831, &c.); Soc. Linn. de M.-et-L. (1852), Annales (1853, &c.). Angoulême, Soc. d'Agr., &c., de la Charente (1803), Annales (1819, &c.). Annecy, Soc. Florimontane (1851), Annales (1851, &c.) and Rev. Savoisienne (1851). Apt, Soc. Litt., Sc. et Art. (1863), Annales (1865, &c.). Arras, Acad. (1737), Mém. (1818, &c.) and other publications. Autun, Soc. Éduenne (1836), Mém. (1872, &c.) and other publications. Auxerre, Soc. des Sc. (1847), Bull. (1847, &c.). Avignon, Acad. de Vaucluse (formerly the Lycée d'Agr., &c., 1801), Mém. (1804), Documents and Cartulaires. Bar-le-Duc, Soc. des Lettres, &c. (1870), Mém. (1871, &c.). Bayeux, Soc. des Sc. Arts et B.-Lett. (1841), Mém. (1842, &c.). Beauvais, Soc. Acad. (1847), Mém. (1847, &c.), Comptes Rendus (1882, &c.). Belfort, Soc. d'Émulation (1872), Bull. (1872). Besançon, Acad. des Sc. &c. (1752; suppressed in 1793; re-established 1805), Proc.-verb. (1754, &c.), Mém. (1838, &c.); Soc. d'Émulation (1840), Mém. (1841, &c.). Béziers, Soc. Arch., Sc., &c. (1834), Bull. (1836, &c.). Blois, Soc. des Sc. et Lettres de Loir-et-Cher (1832), Mém. (1833, &c.). Bordeaux, Acad. (1712; suppressed 1793; re-established 1816), Actes (1839, &c.); Soc. Linn. (1818), Bull. (1826-1829) and Actes (1830, &c.); Soc. des Sc. (1850), Mém. (1855, &c.). Boulogne, Soc. Acad. (1864), Mém. (1864, &c.). Bourg, Soc. d'Émulation (1755), Journal (1817-1868) and Annales (1868, &c.). Bourges, Soc. Hist., &c., du Cher (1849), Mém. (1857, &c.). Brive la Gaillarde, Soc. Sc., Hist. et Archéol. (1878), Bull. (1879, &c.). Caen, Acad. (1652), Rec. (1731-1816), Mém. (1825); Soc. Linn. (1823), Mém. (1824, &c.), and Bull. (1855, &c.); Assoc. Normande (1831) , Annuaire (1835, &c.). Cahors, Soc. des Études Litt., Sc. et Artistiques (1872), Bull. (1873, &c.). Cambrai, Soc. d'Émulation (1804), Mém. (1808, &c.). Cannes, Soc. des Sc. (1868), Mém. (1869, &c.). Carcassonne, Soc. d'Études, &c. (1889), Bull. (1890, &c.). Chambéry, Acad. (1819), Mém. (1825, &c.). Châteaudun, Soc. Dunoise (1864), Bull. (1864, &c.). Cherbourg, Soc. Acad. (1755), Mém. (1833, &c.); Soc. Nat. (1851), Mém. (1852, &c.). Clermont-Ferrand, Acad. (1747), Annales (1828, &c.) and Bull. (1881, &c.). Dijon, Acad. (1725; suppressed 1793; re-established 1800), Mém. (1769, &c.). Douai, Soc. d'Agr., &c., du Nord (1799), Mém. (1826, &c.). Draguinan, Soc. d'Études Sc. (1855), Bull. (1856, &c.). Dunkirk, Soc. Dunkerquoise (1851), Mém. (1853, &c.). Épinal, Soc. d'Émulation (1825), Journal (1825-1827), Séances (1828-1830), Annales (1828, &c.). Evreux, Soc. Libre d'Agr., &c. (1798), Recueil. Gap, Soc. d'Études (1881), Bull. (1882, &c.). Grenoble, Acad. Delphinale (1789), based on Soc. Litt. (1772), Bull. (1836, &c.). Havre, Soc. d'Études Diverses (1833), Recueil (1834, &c.). Laon, Soc. Acad. (1850), Bull. (1852, &c.). La Roche, Soc. d'Émulation (1854), Annuaire (1855, &c.). La Rochelle, Acad. (1732; suppressed 1791; reconstituted in 1803 as Lycée Rochelais and in 1853 under its former name), Annales (1854, &c.). Le Havre, Soc. des Sc. et Arts (1868), Bull. (1868, &c.). Le Mans, Soc. d'Agr., &c., de la Sarthe (founded in 1761; reorganized on several occasions, and finally in 1839), Bull. (1833, &c.). Le Puy, Soc. d'Agr., Sc., &c. (1819), Annales (1826, &c.) and Bull. (1836, &c.). Lille, Soc. des Sc., &c. (founded 1802 as Soc. d'Amateurs), Mém. (1802, &c.); Soc. d'Études, Bull. (1899). Limoges, Soc. d'Agr., Sc., &c., de la Haute-Vienne (1759), Bull. (1822, &c.). Lons-le-Saunier, Soc. d'Émulation (1817), Mém. (1818, &c.). Lyons, Acad. (1724), Mém. (1854, &c.); Soc. d'Agr., Hist. Nat., &c. (1761), Comptes rend. (1806, &c.) and Mém. (1838, &c.); Soc. Linn. (1822), Annales (1836, &c.). Mâcon, Acad. (1805), Comptes rend. (1806-1847) and Annales (1851, &c.). Marseilles, Acad. (1726; in 1766 called Soc. des Sciences; suppressed in 1793; reorganized in 1799, and finally in 1802), Recueil (1727-1786) and Mém. (1803, &c.). Meaux, Soc. Libre d'Agr., Sc., &c. (1798; reorganized in 1820), Publ. (1833, &c.). Mende, Soc. d'Agr., &c., de la Lozère (1819), Mém. (1827, &c.) and Bull. (1850, &c.). Montauban, Acad. (1730), Recueil (1742-1750 and 1869, &c.). Montbéliard, Soc. d'Ém. (1850), Mém. (1852, &c.). Montpellier, Acad. (founded in 1706 as Soc. Royale; suppressed in 1793; finally reorganized in 1846), Mém. (1847, &c.); Soc. d'Horticult., &c., de l'Hérault (1860), Annales (1860, &c.). Moulins, Soc. d'Ém. (1846), Bull. (1846, &c.). Nancy, Acad. de Stanislas (1750), Mém. (1754, &c.); Soc. des Sc. (1873), founded on Soc. des Sc. Nat. de Strasbourg (1828), Mém. (1830, &c.) and Bull. (1866, &c.); Soc. d'archéol., &c. (1848) Mém. (1849, &c.), Journal (1852, &c.). Nantes, Soc. Acad. de la Loire-Inf. (1848), founded in 1798 as Institut Départmental, Annales (1830, &c.). Nevers, Soc. Nivernaise (1851), Bull. (1851, &c.). Nice, Soc. des Lettres, &c. (1861), Annales (1865, &c.). Nîmes, Acad. (1682), Mém. (1805); Soc. d'Étude des Sc. Nat. (1871), Bull. (1873, &c.). Niort, Soc. de Statist. Sc., &c., des Deux-Sėvres (1836), Mém. (1836, &c.) and Bull. (1852, &c.). Orleans, Acad. de Sainte-Croix (1863), Lect. et Mém. (1865, &c.); Soc. d'Agr., Sc., &c. (1809), Bull. (1810-1813), Ann. (1818-1837), and Mém. (1837, &c.). Pau, Soc. des Sc., Lettres, &c. (1841), Bull. (1841, &c.). Périgueux, Soc. d'Agr., Sc., &c., de la Dordogne (1820), Annales (1840, &c.). Perpignan, Soc. Agr., &c. et Litt. (1833), Bull. (1834, &c.). Poitiers, Soc. d'Agr., Belles-Lettres, &c. (1789), Bull. (1818, &c.). Privas, Soc. des Sc. Nat. et Hist. (1861), Bull. (1861, &c.). Reims, Acad. Nat. (1841), Séances (1844, &c.). Rochefort, Soc. de Géog. Lettres, Sc. et Arts (1878), Bull. (1879, &c.). Rodez, Soc. des Lettres, Sc., &c., de l'Aveyron (1836), Mém. (1838, &c.) and Procès-Verb. (1864, &c.). Rouen, Acad. (1744). Précis Analyt. (1744, &c.); Soc. Libre d'Émulation, &c. (1790), Bull. (1797, &c.); Soc. des Amis des Sc. Nat. (1864), Bull. (1865, &c.). Saint-Brieuc, Soc. d'Ém., Bull. et Mém. (1861, &c.). Saint-Dié, Soc. Philomatique (1875), Bull. (1876, &c.). Saint-Étienne, Soc. d'Agr., &c., de la Loire (1822), Annales (1857). Saint-Lo, Soc. d'Agr., &c. (1833), Mém., &c. (1837, &c.). Saint-Quentin, Soc. Acad. (1825), Mém. (1830, &c.). Semur, Soc. des Sc. Hist. et Nat. (1842), Bull, (1864, &c.). Soissons, Soc. Arch., Hist. et Sc. (1846), Mém. (1847, &c.). Tarbes, Soc. Acad. des Hautes-Pyrénées (1853), Bull. (1854, &c.). Toulon, Soc. Acad. du Var (1811), Mém. (1832, &c.). Toulouse, Acad. (founded in 1640; known to 1704 as Soc. des Lanternistes and by other names to 1807, when present title was acquired), Hist. et Mém. (1782-1790) and Mém. (1827, &c.); Soc. d'Hist. Nat. (1866),

Bull. (1867, &c.); Soc. des Sc. (1872), Bull. (1872, &c.). Tours, Soc.