Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/453

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he was still a boy made it necessary for him to seek his fortune, and he enlisted as a private in the French infantry in 1785. His superior education ensured his promotion to the rank of sergeant after six years' service, and in July 1701 he became instructor to the first battalion of volunteers of the Bas-Rhin. He served with his battalion in 1792. By 1794 he was adjutant-general (with the rank of chef de brigade). After the battle of Fleurus, in which he greatly distinguished himself for coolness, he was promoted general of brigade by the representatives on mission. For the next five years he was constantly employed in Germany undei Jourdan, Moreau, Kleber and Lefebvre, and in 1799 he was promoted general of division and ordered to proceed to Switzerland. It was at this time that he laid the foundations of his military fame, and he particularly distinguished himself in Massena's great Swiss campaign, and especially at the battle of Zurich. He accompanied Massena to Genoa, and acted as his principal lieutenant throughout the protracted siege of that city, during which he operated with a detached force without the walls, and after many successful actions he was wounded and taken prisoner at Monte Cretto on the 13th of April 1800. The victory of Marengo restoring his freedom, he received the command of the southern part of the kingdom of Naples, and in 1802 he was appointed one of the four generals commanding the consular guard. Though he was one of those generals who had served under Moreau, and who therefore, as a rule, disliked and despised Napoleon, Soult had the wisdom to show his devotion to the ruling power; in consequence he was in August 1803 appointed to the command-in-chief of the camp of Boulogne, and in May 1804 he was made one of the first marshals of France. He commanded a corps in the advance on Ulm, and at Austerlitz (q.v.) he led the decisive attack on the allied centre. He played a great part in all the famous battles of the Grande Armie, except the battle of Friedland (on the day of which he forced his way into Konigsberg), and after the conclusion of the peace of Tilsit he returned to France and was created (1808) duke of Dalmatia. In the following year he was appointed to the command of the II. corps of the army with which Napoleon intended to conquer Spain, and after winning the battle of Gamonal he was detailed by the emperor to pursue Sir John Moore, whom he only caught up at Corunna.

For the next four years Soult remained in Spain, and his military history is that of the Peninsular War (q.v.). In 1809, after his defeat by Sir John Moore, he invaded Portugal and took Oporto, but, busying himself with the political settlement of his conquests in the French interests and, as he hoped, for his own ultimate benefit as a possible candidate for the throne, he neglected to advance upon Lisbon, and was eventually dislodged from Oporto by Sir Arthur Wellesley, making a painful and almost disastrous retreat over the mountains. After the battle of Talavera he was made chief of staff of the French troops in Spain with extended powers, and on the 19th of November 1809 won the great victory of Ocafla. In 1810 he invaded Andalusia, which he speedily reduced, with the exception of Cadiz. In 1811 he marched north into Estremadura, and took Badajoz, and when the Anglo-Portuguese army laid siege to it he marched to its rescue, and fought the famous battle of Albuera (May 16). In 1812, however, he was obliged, after Wellington's great victory of Salamanca, to evacuate Andalusia, and was soon after recalled from Spain at the request of Joseph Bonaparte, with whom, as with the other marshals, he had always disagreed. In March 1813 he assumed the command of the IV. corps of the Grande Armée and commanded the centre at Lützen and Bautzen, but he was soon sent, with unlimited powers, to the south of France to repair the damage done by the great defeat of Vittoria. His campaign there is the finest proof of his genius as a general, although he was repeatedly defeated by the English under Wellington, for his soldiers were but raw conscripts, while those of Wellington were the veterans of many campaigns.

Such was the military career of Marshal Soult. His political career was by no means so creditable, and it has been said of him that he had character only in front of the enemy. After the first abdication of Napoleon he declared himself a Royalist, received the order of St Louis, and acted as minister for war from the 3rd of December 1814 to the nth of March 1815. When Napoleon returned from Elba Soult at once declared himself a Bonapartist, was made a peer of France and acted as major- general (chief of staff) to the emperor in the campaign of Waterloo, in which role he distinguished himself far less than he had done as commander of an over-matched army. At the Second Restoration he was exiled, but not for long, for in 1819 he was recalled and in 1820 again made a marshal of France. He once more tried to show himself a fervent Royalist and was made a peer in 1827. After the revolution of 1830 he made out that he was a partisan of Louis Philippe, who welcomed his adhesion and revived for him the title of marshal-general. He served as minister for war from 1830 to 1834, as ambassador extraordinary to London for the coronation of Queen Victoria in 1838, and again as minister for war from 1840 to 1844. In 1848, when Louis Philippe was overthrown, Soult again declared himself a republican. He died at his castle of Soultberg, near his birthplace, on the 26th of November 1851. Soult himself wrote but little. He published a memoir justifying his adhesion to Napoleon during the Hundred Days, and his notes and journals were arranged by his son Napoleon Hector (1801-1857), who published the first part (Mémoires du marechal-général Soult) in 1854. Le Noble's Mémoires sur les operations des Français en Galicie are supposed to have been written from Soult papers.

See A. Salle, Vie politique du marechal Soult (Paris, 1834) ; A. de Grozelier, Le Marechal Soult (Castres, 1851); A. Combes, Histoire anecdotique du marechal Soult (Castres, 1869).

SOUMET, ALEXANDRE (1788-1845), French poet, was born on the 8th of February 1788 at Castelnaudary, department of Aude. His father wished him to enter the army, but an early-developed love of poetry turned the boy's ambition in other directions. He was an admirer of Klopstock and Schiller, then little known in France, and reproached Mme de Stael with lack of enthusiasm for her subject in De l’Allemagne. Soumet came to Paris in 1810, and some poems in honour of Napoleon secured his nomination as auditor of the Conseil d'Etat. His well-known elegy La Pauvre fille appeared in 1814, and two successful tragedies produced in 1822, Clytemnestre and Saill, secured his admission to the Academy in 1824. Jeanne d'Arc (1825) aroused great enthusiasm, and was the best of his plays. Among his other pieces Elisabeth de France (1828), a weak imitation of Schiller's Don Carlos, may be noted, but Soumet's real bent was towards epic poetry. His most considerable work is a poem inspired by Klopstock, La Divine épopée, which describes the descent of Christ into Hades. Under Louis XVIII. he became librarian of Saint-Cloud, and subsequently was transferred to Rambouillet and to Compiegne. He died on the 30th of March 1845, leaving an unfinished epic on Jeanne d'Arc. His daughter Gabrielle (Mme Beauvain d'Altenheim) had collaborated with him in some of his later works.

SOUND,[1] subjectively the sense impression of the organ of

  1. "Sound" is an interesting example of the numerous homonymous words in the English language. In the sense in which it is treated in this article it appears in Middle English as soun, and comes through Fr. son from Lat. sonus; the d is a mere addition, as in the nautical term "bound" (outward, homeward bound) for the earlier "boun," to make ready, prepare. In the adjectival meaning, healthy, perfect, complete, chiefly used of a deep undisturbed sleep, or of a well-based argument or doctrine, or of a person well trained in his profession, the word is in O. Eng. sund, and appears also in Ger. gesund, Du. gezond. It is probably cognate with the Lat. sanus, healthy, whence the Eng. sane, insanity, sanitation, &c. Lastly, there is a group of words which etymologists are inclined to treat as being all forms of the word which in O. Eng. is sund, meaning "swimming." These words are for (1) the swim-bladder of a fish; (2) a narrow stretch of water between an inland sea and the ocean, or between an island and the mainland, &c, cf. Sound, The, below; (3) to test or measure the depth of anything, particularly the depth of water in lakes or seas (see Sounding, below). As a substantive the term is used of a surgical instrument for the exploration of a wound, cavity, &c, a probe. In these senses the word has frequently been referred to Lat. sub unda, under the water; and Fr. sombre, gloomy, possibly from sub umbra, beneath the shade, is given as a parallel.