establishments showed greater increases than the urban. The number of rural establishments in 1900 was 1174; in 1905, 1179; and the number of urban establishments in 1900, 195; in 1905, 220; but the capitalization of the rural establishments increased from $50,057,922 in 1900 to $97,942,185 in 1905; while that of the urban increased from $12,692,105 to $15,480,039; the value of the products of the rural establishments increased from $41,930,816 to $64,887,748; while that of the urban establishments increased from $11,404,995 to $14,488,514; and the number of employés in rural establishments increased from 36,616 to 50,744, while those in urban establishments increased from 7409 to 8697. More than half of the manufacturing establishments were engaged in the manufacture of cotton goods, of lumber and timber, of fertilizers, of cotton-seed oil and cake, of lumber and planing-mill products, of cars and general shop construction, and of hosiery and knit goods.
The manufacture of cotton goods was much the most important industry in 1900 and 1905, and showed a remarkable growth. The capital invested in this industry was $39,258,946 in 1900 and $82,337,429 in 1905; the value of the products was $29,723,919 in 1900 and $49,437,644 in 1905; the average number of wage earners was 30,201 in 1900 and 37,271 in 1905; and the amount of wages, $5,066,840 in 1900 and $7,701,689 in 1905. The number of establishments in 1900 was 80, and in 1905, 127; the number of producing spindles in 1900 was 1,431,349, and in 1905, 2,864,092; and the number of looms in 1900, 42,663, and in 1905, 72,702. The use of domestic cotton increased from 485,024 bales in 1900 to 555,467 bales in 1905, and the amount paid for this cotton increased from $14,909,520 to $30,451,159. In the same period the amount of foreign cotton used increased from 210 bales in 1900 to 2633 bales in 1905, and the amount paid for it from $20,026 in 1900 to $318,020 in 1905. The principal product of the mills was plain cloths for printing or converting, of a quality finer than No. 28 warp, of which there were produced 322,850,981 sq. yds., valued at $14,007,496 in 1905, as compared with 97,343,526 sq. yds., valued at $3,171,198 in 1900. Other products and their values in 1900 and 1905 were as follows: brown or bleached sheetings and shirtings, 283,105,383 sq. yds. ($11,553,073) in 1900 and 248,777,474 sq. yds. ($12,035,854) in 1905; yarns for sale, 24,859,616 ℔ ($3,461,090) in 1900 and 31,645,397 ℔ ($6,217,795) in 1905; drills, 116,467,224 sq. yds. ($5,375,017) in 1900 and 88,551,799 sq. yds. ($5,344,146) in 1905; twills and sateens, 11,379,712 sq. yds. ($485,484) in 1900 and 45,220,488 sq. yds. ($2,175,651) in 1905.
The value of the products of other industries in 1900 and 1905 were as follows: Lumber and timber, $4,942,362 in 1900 and $6,791,451 in 1905; cotton-seed oil and cake, $3,103,425 in 1900 and $5,462,818 in 1905; fertilizers, $4,882,506 in 1900 and $3,637,576 in 1905; lumber and planing-mill products, including sash, doors and blinds, $1,016,328 in 1900 and $1,478,581 in 1905; hosiery and knit goods, $392,237 in 1900 and $1,078,682 in 1905; cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam railway companies, $691,361 in 1900 and $1,080,990 in 1905.
Forests.—The principal lumber resource of South Carolina is yellow (or “southern”) pine, and there is also a small quantity of cypress. The stand of yellow pine in the state in 1880 was estimated at 5316 million ft.; and in 1905 it was estimated at 3363 million ft. The value of the lumber product increased from $1,108,880 in 1850 to $5,207,184 in 1900. Some use is also made of the forest resources of the state in the manufacture of veneer, paper pulp, turpentine and other chemicals,
Fisheries.—The total yield of the state's fisheries in 1902 was 8,174,463 ℔, valued to the fishermen at $263,023, which is an increase over that of 1897 of 2,894,017 ℔ and of $52,567 in value. The number of persons employed in 1902 was 3713, an increase over 1897 of 1574; the amount of capital invested in 1902 was $320,723, an increase over 189 of $146,369. The oyster fishery represented in 1902 about 45% of the entire value of the state's fisheries, the catch in that year being 689,700 bush., valued at $118,460, an increase over 1897 of 474,800 bush. and $73,100. The amount and value of other catches in 1902 were as follows: whiting, 606,300 ℔ ($30,118); sea bass, 709,545 ℔ ($27,364); shad, 434,133 ℔ ($20,782); clam, 28,133 bush. ($12,940); shrimp, 306,500 ℔ ($12,452); terrapin, 27,521 ℔ ($5,580); mullet, 138,000 ℔ ($3782); jewfish, 79,500 ℔ ($3738); channel bass, 102,000 ℔ ($3550); squeteague, 85,700 ℔ ($3059); shark, 90,000 ℔ ($1800). Other fish taken include the sheepshead, drum, grouper, striped bass and croaker.
Transportation.—The chief railway systems of South Carolina are the Southern, the Seaboard Air line and the Atlantic Coast line. The railway mileage of the state was 3335.48 m. on the 1st of January 1909. Inland water communication is furnished by several navigable rivers. Between 1816 and 1826 the state expended upon internal improvements $1,712,626, a large part of which was appropriated for building canals round the rapids of five rivers; between 1878 and 1900 the United States government expended $6,063,692 upon seven rivers and three harbours. The Savannah River is navigable from Savannah to Augusta, Georgia (202 m.), where its mean low water depth is 3 ft., and from Augusta to Petersburg, Georgia, for flatboats. Other navigable streams are the Waccamaw, to Bucksville (50 m.); the Great Pedee to Smith's Mills (52 m.); the Cooper, to Strawberry Ferry (30 m.); the Ashley, to Lambs (13 m.); the Edisto, to Guignard Landing (260 m.); the South Edisto, to the North Edisto (11 m.); the Beaufort, to the Coosaw River (11 m.); and the Santee, to the confluence of the Congaree and Wateree rivers, which are navigable for flatboats.The ports of entry are Charleston, Beaufort and Georgetown.
Population.—The population in 1880 was 995,577; in 1890,
1,151,149; in 1900, 1,340,316; and in 1910, 1,515,400. In
only one other state, Mississippi, in 1900 the negroes exceeded
the whites; in South Carolina 58.4% of the total, or 782,321,
were negroes or of negro descent, and 41.6% were whites; but
there was a slight falling-off in the percentage of negroes, this
having been 59.9% in 1890. Of the total population, 99.6%
were native-born. There were, in 1900, 552,436 native whites;
5,528 persons of foreign birth, 121 Indians and 67 Chinese.
Of the inhabitants born in the United States, 29,521 were
natives of North Carolina, and 13,544 were natives of Georgia,
and of the foreign-born 2075 were Germans, and 1131 were
of Ireland. Of the total population, 17,628 were of
foreign parentage—i.e. either one or both parents were foreign born—and
2503 were of German and 1607 of Irish parentage
on both the father's and the mother's side. In 1906 there were
in the state 655,933 members of different religious denominations,
of whom the Baptist bodies were the strongest with
341,456 communicants; the Methodist bodies had 249,169
members; 35,533 were Presbyterians; 12,652 were Lutherans;
10,317 were Roman Catholics; and 8557 were Protestant
Episcopalians. From 1890 to 1900 the urban population
(i.e. in places with 4000 inhabitants) increased from 84,459 to
157,111; the semi-urban population (i.e. population of incorporated
), or the approximate equivalent, having less
than 4000 inhabitants) increased from 93,551 to 104,352;
while the rural population (i.e. population outside of incorporated
places) increased from 973,139 to 1,078,853. The principal
cities are Charleston, Columbia (the capital), Spartanburg,
Greenville, Sumter, Anderson and Rock Hill.
Administration.—South Carolina was governed from 1670 to 1719 under the Carolina provincial charter of 1665, from 1719 to 1776 under commissions and instructions from the Crown, and after 1776 under the constitutions of 1776, 1778, 1790, 1865, 1868 and 1895. An amendment to the constitution may be proposed by either house of the legislature; if it is approved by two-thirds of the members elected to each it must then be submitted to the people to be voted on at the next general election for members of the state house of representatives, and if it receives a favourable vote of a majority and subsequently a majority vote in each house of the next general assembly it becomes part of the constitution. A constitutional convention to revise the constitution may be called by a two thirds vote in each house, subsequently ratified by a majority vote of the electors of the state.
seems to have been aimed at in the suffrage provisions of the new constitution. Two plans of registration were provided, one temporary, the other permanent. Up to the 1st of January 1898 all persons otherwise qualified could register, provided they could read any section of the constitution or understand and explain it when read to them by the registration officer, and all persons so registered were qualified voters for life. The obvious intention was to disfranchise illiterate negroes, but not illiterate whites. Under the permanent plan, however, this distinction will gradually disappear. Those who should apply for registration after the 1st of January 1898 must be able to read and write any section of the constitution submitted to them by the registration officer, or must show that they have paid all taxes for the previous year onproperty worth $300 or more. Other requirements for voters
- In this class are included the manufactures of only four cities, Charleston, Columbia, Greenville and Spartanburg, which in 1900 had populations of 8000 or more.
- According to previous censuses the population was as follows: 1790, 249,073; 1800, 345,591; 1810, 415,115; 1820, 502,741; 1830, 581,185; 1840, 594,398; 1850, 668,507; 1860, 703,708; 1870, 705,606.