Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/552

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GENERAL SURVEY]
531
SPAIN


ocellata), which sometimes attains 3 ft. in length and is very abundant; the Platydactylus saccicularis, the grey amphisbaena {Blanus cinereus) , the European pond-tortoise (Emys europaea), and another species, Emys Siegrizii. Insect life is remarkably abundant and varied. More than 350 species of butterflies, many of them endemic, have been counted in the province of Madrid alone. Besides the ordinary European scorpion, which is general in southern Europe, there is another species, the sting of which is said to be still more severe, found chiefly in the basin of the Ebro. Trout abound in the moun- tain streams and lakes, barbel and many other species of Cyprinidae in the rivers of the plains. For the sea fauna, see under Fisheries below.

Territorial Divisions and Population. — For administrative purposes the kingdom of Spain has since 1833 been divided into forty-nine provinces, forty-seven of which belong to the mainland. Before 1833 the mainland was divided into thirteen provinces, also enume- rated below, which took their names from the ancient kingdoms and principalities out of which the modern kingdom was built up. All the continental provinces, ancient and modern, as also the Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Annobon, Ceuta, Corisco, the Chaffarinas, Fernando Po, the Muni River Settlements and Rio de Oro are described in separate articles.

It is probable that the population of Spain attained its height during the early Roman Empire, when it has been estimated, though of course on imperfect data, to have numbered forty or fifty millions. The best evidence of a dense population in those days is that afforded by the specific estimates of ancient writers for some of the larger cities. The population of Tarraco (Tarragona) was estimated at 25 millions, and those of Nova Carthago (Carta- gena), Italica (Sevilla la Vieja), and other cities at several hundreds of thousands. Emerita Augusta (Merida) had a Roman garrison of 00,000 men, which also implies a large popu- lation.

The first Spanish census was made in 1594, but some of the provinces now included in the kingdom were not embraced in the enumera- tion, so that the total population assigned to Spain within its present limits for that date is obtained by adding the results of enumerations at different dates in the provinces then ex- cluded. The total thus arrived at is 8,206,791. No other census took place till 1787, when the total was found to be 10,268,150; and this census was followed by another in 1797, when the population was returned as 10,541,221. Various estimates were made within the next sixty years, but the census of 1857 proved that some of these estimates must have been greatly below the truth. The total population then ascertained to exist in Spain was 15,464,340, an increase of not much less than 50% since the census of 1797. Between 1857 and 1877 the population increased to 16,631,869; and by 1897 it had risen to 18,132,475. The annual rate of increase during this period of forty years was less than -45%, or lower than that of any other European state, except France in the later years of the 19th century. The census of 1900, however, showed that the annual rate of increase had risen, between 1897 and 1900, to -89%, or nearly double its former amount. This fact may be explained partly by the growth of mining and certain other industries, partly, perhaps, by the recuperative power which the Spanish people has always exhibited after war — the most notable instance of which is the above-mentioned net increase of nearly 50% between 1797 and 1857, despite the Napoleonic invasion and other disastrous wars. A similar though much smaller acceleration in the annual rate of increase after the Carlist Wars of 1874-76 is largely attributable to the prosperity caused by railway development between 1877 and 1887. It would be unjustifiable to assume from the inadequate data available that the Spanish people retains the vitality which characterized it from 1797 to 1857. It is, however, clear from the census returns that at the beginning of the 20th century;

Area and Population of the Former and Present Provinces.


New Castile. Madrid _ . Guadalajara Toledo Cuenca Ciudad Real

Old Castile . Burgos Logrono . Santander Avila . . Segovia . Soria

Palencia . Valladolid

Asturias

Oviedo Leon .

Salamanca

Zamora .

Leon .

Estremadura Badajoz . Caceres .

Galicia .

Corunna (Corufia)

Lugo

Orense

Pontevedra

Andalusia (Andalusia) Almeria Granada . Malaga Cordova Jaen .

Cadiz (with Ceuta) Seville Huelva

Valencia

Castellon de la Plana Valencia . Alicante .

Murcia . Albacete . Murcia

Catalonia Lerida Gerona Barcelona Tarragona

Aragon . Huesca Saragossa - Teruel

Navarre (Navarra) Navarre .

Basque Provinces Biscay (Vizcaya) Guipuzcoa Alava

Balearic Islands

Canary Islands


Total


Area in sq. m.


27.935 3.084 4,676

5.919 6,636 7.620

25.372 5.480 1,946 2,108 3.042 2,635 3.983 3.256 2,922

4.205 4.205

14,862 4,829 4.097 5.936

16,118

8,451 7,667

".254 3.051 3,8i4 2,694

1,695

33,777 3.36o 4,928 2,812

5,299 5,203 2,834 5,428 3,913 8,830

2,495 4,150 2,185

10,190 5,737 4,453

12,427 4,690 2,264 2,968 2,505

18,294 5,848 6,726 5,720

4,055 4,055

2,739 836 728 1. 175 1.935 2,807


Pop., 1857.


Pop., 18


194,700


1,477,915 475,785 199,088

328,755 229,959 244,328 1,609,948 333,356 173.812 214,441

164,039 146,839 147,468 185,970 244,023

524,529 524,529 861,434 263,516 249,162 348,756

707,115 404,981 302,134

1,776,879 55L989 424,186 37i,8i8 428,886

2,937.183 315.664 444.629 451,406 351.536 345.879 390,192 463,486 174,391

1,246,485 260,919 606,608 378,958 582,087 201,118 380,969

1,652,291 306,994 310,970 713.734 320,593 880,643

257.839 384,176 238,628

297,422 297.422

413.470 160,579 156,493 96,398 262,893 234,046


Pop., 1900.


1,778,155 683,484

205,040

356,398

246,091 287,142

1,744.301 342,988 183,430

249,116

195.321 155,927 157,008

189,349

271,162

615,844 615,844 984,711 320,588

274,890

389,233 808,685 476,273 332,412

1,967,239 635,327 438,076

415.237 478,599 3.393.681 345,929 482,787 523.915 413,883

428,152

423,261

535,687

240,067

1,461,453 292,952 730,916 437,685 720,843

231.073 489,770

1,836,139

296,609

311,153 879,771

348,606

922,554 260,585

415,152

246,817

307,994 307,994

510,194

234,880 181,149

94.165 313.480 301,963


15,464,340


Pop. per

sq. m.,

1900.


17,667,256


1,923.310

775.034 200,186 376,814 249,696 321,580

1,785,403 338,828 189.376 276,003 200,457

159.243 150,462

192,473 278,561

627,069 627,069

982,393 320,765

275,545 386,083

882,410 520,246 362,164

1,980,515 653,556 463,386 404,311 457,262

3,562,606

359,013 492,460

5",989 455,859 474,490 452,659 555,256 260,880

1,587,533 310,828 806,556 470,149

815,864 237,877 577,987 1,966,382 274,590 299,287

1,054,541 337,964 912,711 244,867 421,843 •246,001

307,669 307,669

603,596 311,361 195,850 96,385 3",649 358,564

6o-8

251-3 42-8 63-6 37-6 42-2

70-3 6i-8

97-3 130-9

65-9 60-4

37-7

59-i

95-3

149- 1

149- 1

66-i 66-4 67-2 65-0,

54-7 6i-6

47-2

175-8 214-2

122-0 I50-I 269-8

105-4 106-8

99-9

182-1 85-8 91-2

159-7

100-4

66-6

179-7 124-5 194-3 215-1 8o-o

4i-3 129-8

158-2

58-5 132-2

355-3 134-9

49-8 41-8 62-7 43-0

75-8 75-8

220-3

372-4 269-0

82-0

161-1 127-5

18,618,086

95-6