public aspirations for the reduction and control of the excessive number of orders and religious orders, without impairing their independence in spiritual matters," and in introducing a bill for the amendment of the law of 1887 Sefior Canalejas declared that the government, " inspired by the universal spirit of liberty of conscience," had given to article xi. of the constitution " the full sense of its text." 1
" Liberty of conscience," a principle condemned by the Syllabus of 1864 and sneered at in the encyclical Pascendi gregis of 1905, was hardly a phrase calculated to conciliate the Spanish clergy, still less the Vatican. A cry went up that to allow dissident churches to announce their presence was to insult and persecute the Catholic Church ; 2 at Rome the decree was attacked as unconstitutional, and a breach of diplomatic propriety all the more reprehensible as negotiations for a revision of the con- cordat were actually pending. A violent clerical agitation, encouraged by the Vatican, was started, 72 Spanish archbishops and bishops presenting a joint protest to the government. Fuel was added to the fire by the introduction of a billâ€” known as the Cadenas billâ€” forbidding the settlement of further congre- gations in Spain until the negotiations with the Vatican should have been completed. This was denounced at Rome as a uni- lateral assertion on the part of the Spanish government of an authority which, under the concordat, belonged to the Holy See as well. As a preliminary to negotiation, the government was required to rescind all the obnoxious measures. This demand broke the patience of the prime minister, and on the 30th of July Serior de Ojeda, Spanish ambassador at the Vatican, was instructed to hand in his papers. In Vatican circles dark hints began to be dropped of a possible rapproche- ment with Don Jaime, who had succeeded his father Don Carlos, on the 18th of July 1909, as the representative of Spanish legitimacy and Catholic orthodoxy. The pretender, indeed, disclaimed any intention of stirring up civil war in Spain ; his mission would be to restore order when the country should have wearied of the republican regime whose speedy advent he foresaw. The fulfilment of the first part of this prophecy seemed to some to be brought a step nearer by the overthrow of the monarchy in Portugal on the 5th of October 1910. For Spain its immediate effect was to threaten a great increase of the difficulties of the government, by the immi- gration of the whole mass of religious congregations expelled from Portugal by one of the first acts of the new regime.
(W. A. P.)
Chronological Tables of Christian Dynasties in Spain.
Kings of the Visigoths, having relations with Spain, but not established within it: â€”
Kings of the Visigoths established in Spain :-
Ataulf . . Sigcric . Wallia . .
Thorismund Theodoric II Euric Alaric II. .
Gesalic . Amalaric
451-453 453-466 466-485 485-507
Entered the north-east of Spain, murdered at Barcelona.
His murderer, promptly mur- dered in turn.
Elected king, was the ally (foe- deratus) of the empire. De- feated the Vandals and Alans. Migrated to south-west of France with all his people.
Made inroads into Spain, as ally of the empire. Killed in the battle with Attila.
All these kings had the seat of their government north of the Pyrenees. They made inroads in Spain and had a stronghold on the north-east. Alaric was killed by the Frankish king, Clovis, at Vouill6, 507.
Bastard son of Alaric, was mur- dered.
Reigned in south and south-east of France under protection cf Theodoric, the Ostrogothic king in Italy. Fled before Franks to Barcelona at end of reign, and was murdered at Barcelona.
Theudigisel . .
Agila . . .
Liuva II. .
Gunthemar . Sisebut . Reccared II.
Erwic Egica Witiza Roderic .
610-612 612-620 620-62 1
631-636 636-640 640-641 641-652 649-672
680-687 687-701 697-710 710-711
An Ostrogoth, general of Theodo- ric. Murdered Amalaric, and was murdered in turn at Seville by Theudigesil.
Murdered by Agila.
Murdered at Merida.
Rebelled against Agila, evacuated Andalusia to secure aid of Imperial officers. Established the capital at Toledo.
Elected at Narbonne. Associated his brother Leovigild with him- self.
The first Visigoth king who as- sumed the diadem and purple, struck coins in his own name, and enforced recognition of his supremacy in all parts of Spain, except the south coast.
Son. Associated with his father. The first Visigoth king who was a Catholic.
Son. Soon murdered.
Leader of Arian reaction.
Associated his family with him on the throne. They were all de- posed by the nobles.
These kings were mainly sup- ported by the clergy, and were engaged in endeavouring to make the crown hereditary, by associating their kinsmen with themselves.
Unrelated to his predecessor and elected by the nobles â€” was de- posed and tonsured.
The most obscure of the Visigoth kings. Egica and Witiza ap- pear to have continued the struggle with the nobles, by whom Roderic was tumultu- ously elected, in opposition to Witiza's son Actula.
Early kings of the Christian north-west of Spain, of uncertain chronology and relationship : â€”
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Pelayo . . Favila . Alphonso I. . .
718-737 737-739 739-757
Elected as " king of the Goths." Brother of Pelayo. Son-in-law of Pelayo.
Aurelio . Silon Maurecat .
768-774 774-785 785-789
Son of Alphonso I. Murdered by
his brother. Brother or cousin. Brother-in-law of Aurelio. Bastard son of Alphonso I.
Called the Deacon, descendant of Alphonso I., reigned for a very short time, and retired to a religious house.
Called the Chaste, son of Froila. Was perhaps chosen in opposi- tion to Eermudo.
Ramiro I. . Ordono I. . Alphonso III. .
842-850 850-866 866-914
Son of Bermudo the Deacon. Son of Ramiro. Son of Ordono.