Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/592

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HISTORY]
571
SPAIN


counts of Barcelona who became independent with Wilfred I. by 874. He and his immediate descendants gradually ^ubdued the other counts. They suffered much from the inroads of Mansur in the 10th century, but on the decline of the caliphate, they took part in the general advance.

Berenguer Ramon I.


Ramon Berenguer, "The Old."


Ramon Berenguer II.

and Berenguer Ramon II.

Ramon Berenguer


Ramon Berenguer


101 8-1035


i035-i°7°


1076-1082 1076-1082

1082-1131


1131-1162


Held Barcelona, Vich and Manresa with land con- quered from the Moors to the south.

Son. His father had divided his possessions between his widow and all his sons, but Ramon Berenguer reunited them by force. He left his dominion to be held in common by his two sons.

Ramon Berenguer II. Cap d'estops (" Tow Pow ") was murdered by Beren- guer Ramon II., whose end is unknown.

Son of Ramon Berenguer II. By his marriage with Aldonza or Douce of Pro- vence he acquired territory in south-eastern France. He inherited or subdued all the other countships of Catalonia, except Peralada

Son. Inherited the Spanish possessions of his father, the French going to a brother. Was betrothed to Petronilla of Aragon, and married her in 1150, becoming king of Aragon.


Second period of the union, disunion and reunion of Castile and Leon from Fernando I. to Fernando III. Fernando I. divided his dominions among his three sons: to Sancho, the eldest, Castile; to Alfonso, the second son, Leon; to Garcia, the third son, Gallicia.


Sancho II. . Alphonso VI. Urraca . Alphonso VII.


Sancho III. . Fernando II. Alphonso VIII. Alphonso IX.


Henry I. Berengaria


Fernando III.


1065-1072 I 065-1 109 1109-1126 1126-1157


1 157-1 1 58 1157-1188 1158-1214 U 88-1 230


1214-1217 1217-


1217-1252


He expelled Alphonso and Garcia, reuniting the three kingdoms. Murdered at Zamora.

Returned from exile, obtained all the three kingdoms, and im- prisoned Garcia for life.

Daughter of Alphonso VI., and widow of Raymond of Bur- gundy.

Son. Recognized as king in Gallicia during his mother's life. Divided his kingdoms between his sons; to the elder Sancho, Castile, to the younger, Fernando, Leon.

In Castile.

In Leon.

Castile. Son of Sancho III.

Leon. Son of Fernando II. Is numbered IX. because he was junior to the cousin Alphonso of Castile.

Castile. Son of Alphonso VIII.

Daughter of Alphonso VIII. Married to Alphonso IX. of Leon, but the marriage was declared uncanonical by the pope. The children were de- clared legitimate. Berengaria resigned the crown of Castile to her son Fernando by the uncanonical marriage with Alphonso IX. of Leon.

Inherited Leon on the death of his father Alphonso IX., and united the crowns for the last time, in 1230.


Castile and Leon till the Union With Aragon. Fernando III. was king of Castile and Leon from 1230 to 1252.


Alphonso X.


1252-1284


Eldest son of Fernando III.


Sancho IV. .


1 284-1 295


Second son of Alphonso. X. Was preferred to the sons of his elder brother Ferdinand de la Cerda, who died in Alphonso's lifetime.


Ferdinand IV. .


1295-1312


Son of Sancho.


Alphonso XI. .


1312-1350


Son of Ferdinand IV.


Peter "The Cruel"


1350-1369


Son of Alphonso XI.


Henry II.


1 369-1 379


Natural son of Alphonso IX. He deposed and murdered Peter, and founded the line of the new kings.


John I. . . .


1 379-1 390


Son of Henry II.


Henry III. . .


1 390-1 406


Son of John I.


John II. . .


1406-1454


Son of Henry III.


Henry IV. . . Isabella .


1454-1474 1 474-1 504


Son. The legitimacy of the daughter of his second marriage was not recognized, and the crown of Castile passed to his sister, who married Ferdinand of Aragon. The marriage united the crowns in 1479.


Aragon, from the union with the county of Barcelona, to the union with Castile: —


Alphonso II.


Peter II. . .

James I., " The

Conqueror."


Peter III. .

Alphonso III. James II.


Alphonso IV. Peter IV. .

John I. . . Martin . .


Ferdinand I.

Alphonso V. John II.

Ferdinand II.


1162-1196


1196-1213 1213-1276


1276-1285

1285-1291 1291-1327


i3 2 7-!336 1336-1387

1387-1395


1 395-I4IO

1412-1416

1416-1458 1 458-1 479

1479-1516


Son and successor of Petronilla and Ramon Berenguer IV. Recovered the Provencal pos- sessions of Ramon Berenguer II.

Son. Killed at Muret.

Son. Conquered the Balearic Islands and Valencia. Left the islands to his son James, from whom the title passed in succes- sion to Sancho (d. 1324), his eldest son, to Sancho's nephew James (d. 1349), and to another James, his son (d. 1375); but the actual possession was re- covered by the elder line before the extinction of the younger branch.

Eldest son. Conquered Sicily, claimed by right of his wife Constance, daughter of Man- fred of Beneventum.

Eldest son. Succeeded to Spanish possessions.

Second son of Peter III. He had succeeded to Sicily, but re- signed his rights, which were then assumed by his brother Frederick, who founded the Aragonese line of kings of Sicily.

Son of James II.

Finally reannexed the Balearic Islands.

Son by the marriage of Peter IV. with his cousin Eleanor of the Sicilian line.

Younger brother of John I. His son Martin was chosen king of Sicily ,_ but died in 1409. The male line of the kings of Aragon of the House of Barcelona ended with Martin.

Second son of Eleanor, sister of Martin, and wife of John I. of Castile. Succeeded by choice of the Cortes.

Son. Spent most of his life in Italy, where he was king of Naples and Sicily.

Brother of Alphonso V., whom he succeeded in the Spanish pos- sessions, and Sicily, but not in Naples.

Son. His marriage with Isabella united the crowns.