Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/593

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Navarre till the conquest of Ferdinand the Catholic:

Garcia IV.

Sancho VI . , called

" The Wise " Sancho VII. Theobald I.

Theobald II. Henry I. Jeanne I.

Jeanne II. Charles II., called

" The Bad " Charles III., "The

Noble " John I. of Aragon

i i 34-1 i 50


1 194-1234 1 234-1 253

1253-1270 1270-1274 1274-1305

Francis Phoebus Catherine

1328-1349 1349-1387

1387-1425 ' 1425-1479

1479-1483 1483-1514

A descendant of Sancho el Mayor. Elected by theNavar- rese on the death of Alphonso of Aragon without issue.

Son. Father of Berengaria, wife

of Richard Cceur de Lion. Son. Died without issue. Husband of Blanche, daughter of Sancho " The Wise."

Son. Died without issue.


Daughter, wife of Philip IV. of France. Navarre was now absorbed in France, and so remained till 1328, when on the death of Charles IV. of France, the last of the house of Hugh Capet, it passed to his niece Jeanne, daughter of Louis X., and wife of Philip, count of Evreux.

Son. These two kings were much concerned with France, and little with Spain.

King of Navarre by right of his wife Blanche, daughter of Charles III. On his death Navarre passed to his daugh- ter by Blanche, Eleanor, widow of Gaston IV., count of Foix. She died in the same year as her father, and Navarre passed to her grand- son, Francis Phoebus.

Died without issue, and was succeeded by his sister, the wife of Jean D'Albret. The Spanish part of Navarre was conquered by Ferdinand the Catholic in 1512.

Kings of United Spain

Joan, "The Mad'

Charles I. in Spain

Philip II. .

Philip III. .

Philip IV. .

Charles II. .

Philip V. .

Ferdinand VI. Charles III. . Charles IV. .

1 504-1 520


1 556-1 598

1598-1621 1621-1665 1 665-1 700 1 700-1 746


1 759-1 788 1 788-1 808

Daughter of Isabella, whom she succeeded in Castile, with her husband Philip I., of Habsburg. After his death, her father Ferdinand was guardian and regent.

Son of Joan. Was recognized as king with his mother; elected to the empire as Charles V.

Son. Succeeded on abdication of Charles V.



Son. Died without issue.

Succeeded by the will of Charles II., as grandson of Maria Tere- sa, daughter of Philip IV., and of Louis XIV., king of France. With him began the line of the Spanish Bourbons. He abdi- cated for a few months in 1724- 1725 in favour of his son Louis, but resumed the crown when Louis died.

Son by Philip V.'s first marriage with Maria Louisa of Savoy. Died without issue.

Brother. Son of Philip V. by his second marriage with Elizabeth Farnese. Son. He abdicated under pres- i sure in 1808 in favour of his j son Ferdinand, and then re- signed his rights to Napoleon.

Kings of United Spain (continued)

Ferdinand VII.

Isabella II. .

Alphonso XII.

Alphonso XIII.


1 833-1 868



Was proclaimed king on the forced abdication of nis father. Remained a prisoner in France during the Peninsular War. He repealed the Salic Law estab- lished by Philip V.

Daughter. Her succession was resisted by her uncle Don Carlos, and the Carlist Wars ensued. Deposed.

Son. His mother abdicated in his favour and he was re- stored.

Born after his father's death.

(D. H.)

Bibliography. — (1) Sources: There are several published collec- tions of sources for Spanish history. Of these the oldest is R. Belus, Rerum hispanicarum scriptores aliquot in bibliotheca Roberti Beli ... 3 vols. fol. (Frankfort, 1579-1581). In 1740-1752 was pub- lished at Madrid J. A. de Creu y Bertodano's Coleccion de los tratados de paz, alianza, neutralidad, garanzia, proteccion, treguia y mediacion, &c, que han hecho los reyes de Espana con los pueblos, republicas y demas potencias y otras partes del mondo, in 12 vols, folio. A Coleccion de documentos ineditos para la historia de Espagna, by Pidal and others, was published in 65 vols. (Madrid 1842-1876). In 1851 the Royal Academy of History of Madrid began the pub- lication of its Memorial historica espanol, a collection of documents, &c. See also Dionisio Hidalgo, Diccionario general de bibliografia espanola, 7 vols. (Madrid, 1862-1881).

(2) Works: The standard general history of Spain written by a Spaniard is that of Don Modesto Lafuente in 30 volumes (1850-1867; new ed., by Valera, 22 vols., Barcelona, 1888). It was written before the medieval period had been properly investigated, is wordy, and largely spoilt by displays of national vanity. A later ' and more critical writer of nearly the same name, Don Vicente de la Fuente, has published valuable Estudios criticos sobre la historia y el derecho de Aragon (1884-1886). No satisfactory general history of Spain has been written by a foreigner. The best is that of M. Romey, Histoire d'Espagne (1843). Don Rafael Altamira has pub- lished an Historia de Espana y de la civilizacion espanola (2 vols., Barcelona, 1900-1902), in which he sums up the results of later research. Among older writers Juan de Mariana, who ends with the Catholic sovereigns, professedly took Livy as a model, and wrote a fine example of a rhetorical history published in Latin (1592-1609), and then in Spanish translated and largely re-written by himself. It was continued to 1600 by Minana. An English translation, with supplements, was published by Captain J. Stephens in 1699. The Anales de Aragon of Geronimo Zurita (1610) are very far superior to the history of Mariana in criticism and research. The great school of Spanish historians died out with the other glories of the nation in the 17th century. The later periods have been indifferently treated by them, but Don Antonio Canovas del Castillo published some valuable studies on the later Austrian dynasty under the title Estudios del reinado de Felipe IV. (1889). The reader may also consult — for the earlier period — Florian de Ocampo and Ambrosio de Morales, whose combined works are known as the Cronica general de Espana (fol. editions, 1543-1586, republished in 10 small volumes at Madrid, 1791-1792). This was continued by Prudencio de Sandoval, bishop of Tuy and afterwards of Pampeluna, under the title of Hist, de los reyes de Costilla y de Leon: Fernando I.-Alonso VII. Both ancient and later times are dealt with in the Historia general de Espana, escrita por individuos de la real academia de la historia (Madrid, 1892 sqq.) — a series of studies by different hands; that on the reign of Charles III., by Sefior Manuel Danvila, is very valuable for the later 18th century. An account of the troubled years of the 19th century has been written by Don Antonia Pirala, Historia contempordnea (1871-1879). The latest general history of Spain is Don Rafael Altamira y Crevea's Historia de Espana y de la civilizacion espanola, 3 vols(Barcelona 1902-1906). The standard authority for the Mahommedan side of Spanish history is the Histoire des Musulmans d'Espagne, 711-1110, by R. P. A. Dozy (4 vols., Leiden, 1861). It requires to be supplemented by Don Pascual de Gayongos's translation of Al Makkari's History of the Mahommedan Dynasties in Spain (1840-1843) and by Sefior Francisco Codera's Decadencia y desaparicion de los Almoravides en Espana (Saragossa, 1899) and Estudios criticos de hist, arabe espanola (ibid., 1903). See also Stanley Lane Poole, The Moors in Spain (" Story of the Nations " Series,' 1887) and S. P. Scott, Hist, of the Moorish Empire in Europe (3 vols., Philadelphia and London, 1904). Other English works, on general Spanish history, are Martin A. S. Hume's Spain, its Greatness and Decay, 1479-1788 (Cambridge, 1898) and Modern Spain, 1788-i8q8 ("Story of the Nations" Series, 1899), and Butler Clarke's Modern Spain, 1815-18Q8 (Cambridge, 1906). Excellent summaries of Spanish history year by year are published in the Annual Register.