Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/804

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poet's copious notes, still in manuscript (in the British Museum), on Callimachus.

Stanley's original poems, which had been collected in 1651, were imperfectly reprinted in Sir S. Egerton Brydges's edition of 150 copies in 1814, but never since; his "Anacreon" was issued, with the Greek text, by Mr Bullen in 1892. His prose works have not been collected.  (E. G.) 

STANLEY, SIR WILLIAM (1548–1630), English soldier and traitor, was the eldest son of Sir Rowland Stanley (d. 1612) of Hooton, Cheshire, a member of the famous family of that name. As a volunteer under the duke of Alva he gained his earliest military experiences in the service of Spain; then about 1570 he joined the English forces in Ireland, where he remained for fifteen years, being knighted by Sir William Drury in,1579. He was very prominent in the guerrilla warfare against the Irish rebels; he was made sheriff of Cork, and he acted as deputy for Sir John Norris, the president of Munster, where by 300 executions he terrified the inhabitants "that a man now may travel the whole country and none to molest him." Having, says William Camden, "singulari fide et fortitudine in Hibernico bello moruerat," he returned to England in October 1585, undoubtedly annoyed that his services had not been more generously rewarded. In December of this year, however, he crossed to the Netherlands with the English forces, but almost as soon as he reached his destination he was sent to Ireland to collect recruits, of whom he enlisted about 1400. Although a strong Roman Catholic, Stanley had hitherto served Elizabeth loyally, but lingering in London on his return from his Irish errand, he seems to have entered into the schemes of the Jesuits against the queen, and he was probably aware of Anthony Babington's plot. But the time for more active and personal treachery had not yet arrived, and with his Irish levies he reached Holland in August 1586, fought gallantly at Zutphen and helped Sir William Pelham to seize Deventer. In spite of some remonstrances, Stanley was made governor of this town, being given extended powers by Leicester, and his opportunity had now come. In January 1587 he surrendered Deventer to the Spaniards, and while most of his men entered the Spanish service, he travelled to Madrid to discuss the projected invasion of England, his idea being to make Ireland the base for this undertaking. These and subsequent plans were ruined by the defeat of the Armada, but he made several journeys to Spain, and did not abandon the hope that England might be invaded. In the intervals between his travels he fought under the Spanish flag in the Netherlands and in France. Later he became governor of Mechlin, and he died at Ghent on the 3rd of March 1630. His descendant, William Stanley, was created a baronet in 1661, the male line of the family becoming extinct when Sir John Stanley-Errington, the 12th baronet, died in 1893.

See R. Bagwell, Ireland under the Tudors (1890), vol. iii.; and J. L. Motley, The United Netherlands (1904), vol. ii.

STANNARD, JOSEPH (1796–1830), British painter, was born in Norwich. He there received some training in art from Robert Ladbrooke, the brother-in-law of Crome, and he also visited Holland and studied the pictures of the Dutch masters. His short life—he died when he was thirty-four—was spent in his native town, and he contributed to the exhibitions of the Norwich Society, of which he was a member, and also occasionally showed his work in London. Most of his pictures represent coast subjects or river scenes, but he had some reputation as a portrait-painter also, and in this branch of practice he achieved locally a fair measure of success. In his large picture, "The Annual Water Frolic at Thorpe," he combined landscape with portraiture. He attained no little skill as an etcher and published several plates which have a considerable degree of merit.

STANNARIES (Lat. stannum, Cornish, stéan, tin), tin mines. Stannary courts exercised a jurisdiction peculiar to Cornwall and Devon. So far as regards Cornwall the jurisdiction is an immemorial one. By ancient charters, the tinners of Cornwall were exempt from all other jurisdiction than that of the stannary courts, except in cases affecting land, life and limb. The tin-mining industry of Cornwall, dating, as it does, from the very earliest times, was always prosecuted in accordance with a particular code of customs; the earliest charter which embodies them is that of Edmund, earl of Cornwall, but the freedom then assured was rather confirmed than given for the first time, and it is impossible to say how far these customs of the stannaries courts go back. Twenty-four stannators were returned for the whole of Cornwall. Their meeting was termed a parliament, and when they assembled they chose a speaker. In earlier times, the combined tinners of Devon and Cornwall assembled on Hingston Down, a tract of highland on the Cornish side of the Tamar. After the charter of Earl Edmund, the Cornish stannators met (apparently) at Truro; those of Devonshire at Crockern Tor on Dartmoor. An officer was appointed by the duke of Cornwall or the Crown, who was lord warden of the stannaries, and the parliaments were assembled by him from time to time, in order to revise old or to enact new laws. The last Cornish stannary parliament was held at Truro in 1752. For a long series of years little or no business was transacted in the stannary courts; but the necessity for a court of peculiar jurisdiction, embracing mines and mining transactions of every description within the county of Cornwall having become more and more apparent, a committee was appointed to report on the subject, and an act of parliament was afterwards (1836) passed, suppressing the law courts of the stewards of the different stannaries, and giving to the vice-warden their jurisdiction, besides confirming and enlarging the ancient equity jurisdiction of that office. By the Stannaries Act 1855 the respective parliaments or stannaries courts of Cornwall and Devon were consolidated. From the judgments of the vice-warden an appeal lay to the lord warden, and from him to the Supreme Court. By the Stannaries Courts Abolition Act 1896 the jurisdiction of the courts was transferred to the county courts. The most important customs may be briefly stated: (a) "free tinners" had the right to work upon rendering the "toll-tin," usually one-fifteenth of the produce, to the owner or lord of the soil; (b) the right of "tin-bounding," that is, the right of bounding any unappropriated waste lands, or any several or enclosed lands which had once been waste land, subject to the custom and to the delivery of tin-toll. The bound was marked by turf or stone, and was about an acre in extent. The estate of a bounder in Devonshire is real property, but in Cornwall is personal property.

For many centuries a tax on the tin, after smelting, was paid to the earls and dukes of Cornwall. The smelted blocks were carried to certain towns (Liskeard, Lostwithiel, Penzance, Truro) to be coined, that is, a corner of the block was cut off, and the block was then stamped with the duchy seal as a guarantee of the quality. By an act of 1838 the dues payable on the coinage of tin were abolished, and a compensation was awarded to the duchy instead of them.

See T. Pearce, Laws and Customs of the Stannaries in the Counties of Cornwall and Devon (1725); Bainbridge, Law of Mines and Minerals; G. R. Lewis, The Stanneries: a Study of the English Tin Mines ("Harvard Economic Studies," 1908).

STANNITE, a rare mineral consisting of tin, copper and iron sulphide (a sulpho-stannate, Cu2FeSnS4), containing, when pure, tin 27.5, copper 29.5%. It has a metallic lustre, and, when pure, is iron-black in colour: more often, however, it is bronze-yellow, owing to tarnish or to the presence of intimately admixed chalcopyrite: for this reason it is known to miners as "bell-metal-ore" or as "tin pyrites." The hardness is 31/2 and the specific gravity 4.45. It usually occurs as granular to compact masses, rarely as crystals. Minute crystals from Bolivia have been shown to be tetragonal and hemihedral, like chalcopyrite; and to be invariably twinned, giving rise to pseudocubic forms. The mineral has been found in a number of Cornish tin mines, and was formerly worked to a limited extent as an ore. At Zinnwald in Bohemia it occurs with blende and galena, and in Bolivia with silver ores.  (L. J. S.) 

STANS, the capital of the eastern half (or Nidwalden) of the Swiss canton of Unterwalden. It stands amid orchards at a