Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/881

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page needs to be proofread.
859
STEAMSHIP LINES


White Star Line.—Though perhaps chiefly known in the New York trade, the White Star flag was first hoisted in the middle of last century over a fleet of clippers which sailed to Australia. In 1867 Mr Thomas Henry Ismay took it over, and two years later the great revolution in the constitution of the company took place. It was in 1869 that Mr Ismay formed the Oceanic Steam Navigation Company to run a line of steamers between Liverpool and New York. Immediately on its formation the company entered into arrangements with Messrs Harland & Wolff of Belfast for the construction of a fleet of high-class passenger ships, and it is worthy of notice that the terms upon which Messrs Harland & Wolff built the White Star ships were peculiar. No definite price was agreed upon, but the actual cost plus a percentage for builders' profit was charged. The first " Oceanic," pioneer steamship of the line, was launched on the 27th of August 1870, and sailed for New York on the 2nd of March 1871. Her advent opened a new era in Atlantic travel. She introduced the midship saloon, which extended the whole width of the ship, thus giving increased light and improved ventilation, and reducing to a minimum the sensation of the vessel's motion. The arrangement thus introduced is now almost universally adopted in the construction of ocean liners. The “Oceanic” was also narrower in proportion to her length than the vessels previously designed for the transatlantic mail service. In 1877 the “Britannic” reduced the passage to 7 days 10 hours and

Fleets of Various Important Steamship Companies in 1891, 1901 and 1910.[1]

1910. 1901. 1891.
Company. No. of
Vessels.
Gross
Tonnage.
Flag. Numer-
ical
Order.
Gross
Tonnage.
No. of
Vessells.
Numer-
ical
Order.
No. of
Vessells.
Gross
Tonnage.
Numer-
ical
Order.
No. of
Vessells.
Gross
Tonnage.
International Mercantile Marine Co.
White Star Line 31 372,045 British 10 25 212,403 17 16 84,902
Leyland Line[2] 42 253,803 British 7 55 242,781 23 23 60,511
American Line and Red[3] Star Line 16 164,213 Mixed 15 25 167,105
Atlantic Transport Co. . 14 107,650 British 26 17 123,593 32 6 18,111
Dominion and British & North
Atlantic Co. 13 86,655 British 27 13 105,430 29 8 28,696
Vessels owned jointly with
Shaw, Savill & Albion. . 7 51,053 British
National S.S. Co. 2 16,005 British 3 18,464 12 53,522
Training Ship 1 1,814 British
126 1,053,238 I 1,053,238 126
Hamburg-American Line German 2 979,217 168 I 202 541,085 9 42 126,795
Norddeutscher Lloyd German 3 752,037 176 2 II I 454,936 4 70 198,723
P. & O. Company . British 4 458,037 64 5 58 313,343 3 49 199,911
British India S.N. Co.. . British 5 423,063 104 4 120 378,770 I loo 234,654
Pacific Steam Navigation Co. . 40 183,234 British 56 377,897 85 32 42 138,754 15 36 73,384
Alfred Holt & Co.-Ocean S.S. .
Co.. .. .. .. . 39 234,808 British 16 41 165,143 II 44 109,000
China Mutual Steam Naviga- 7 340,559 57
tion Co.. . 18 105,751 British
Furness, Withy & Co. . British 8 340,537 116 12 40,994 20 44,528
Elder, Dempster & Co.[4] British 9 331,533 108 3 120 382,560 25 48 55,256
Union-Castle Co.[5] British Jo 295,360 41 8 41 222,613
Messageries Maritimes. . French 11 293,669 65 6 62 246,277 2 63 202,801
Nippon Yusen Kaisha. . Japanese 12 289,787 73 9 69 218,361 28 52 42,058
Ellerman Lines. ... . British 13 283,234 78
Lamport & Holt . British 14 281,412 44 20 47 149,712 12 54 106,648
Nav. Gen. Italiana[6] Italian 15 274,952 106 II 102 205,104 6 106 164,052
Hansa Line German 16 247,691 53 18 57 157,037 26 26 50,413
Compagnie Generale Trans-atlantique  French 17 245,353 62 13 59 18 3,343 5 66 174,600
Harrison Line of Liverpool. . British 18 217,085 43 21 31 146,625 22 27 61,643
Austrian Lloyd. Austrian 19 216,414 66 14 68 169,436 10 76 124,435
I Cunard Line British 20 209,231 19 25 26 126,332 16 22 85,104
Clan Line. .. ... . British 21 202,463 49 17 46 164,487 18 29 76,300
Canadian Pacific Railway . British 22 198,310 65 12 38,089 7 24,373
Hamburg South American Line German 23 197,703 49 32 125,597 26 56,938
Wilson Line British 24 190,278 87 12 89 189,818 7 73 132,889
Kosmos Line. .. .. . German 25 177,704 36 29 110,251 15 32,963
Allan Line. .. .. . British 26 160,570 28 19 36 152,367 13 31 106,346
Ropner's. ... . British 27 155,440 50 29 36 100,426 21 34 62,717
Maclay & Macintyre British 28 144,500 45 24 51 126,917 30 19 26,928
Chargeurs Reunis French 29 144,441 25 34 26 81,149 20 30 70,173
Booth Line British 30 128,200 37 27 6 4,45 6 10 13,951
Holland-American Line. . Dutch 31 124,136 15 9 55,413 II 37,891
Prince Line British 32 123,909 41 33 79,001 32 59,221
Bucknall Line British 33 122,388 29 33 23 83,207 33
Anchor Line British 34 110,588 19 23 41 132,540 8 44 127,065
Westoll Line. ... . British 35 90,174 35 31 38 88,306 27 31 48,298
Volunteer Fleet Russian 36 84,500 18 35 16 80,424 31 8 23,845
Johnston Line of Liverpool . British 37 81,000 20 28 24 100,460 24 22 58,621
Compafiia Transatlantica . Spanish 38 79,767 22 30 23 88,453 14 36 101,214
  1. This table is based on that contained in a paper on “Shipping Subsidies,” by B. W. Ginsburg, published in the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (September 1901).
  2. The Leyland Line was formerly the Leyland Line and West India & Pacific Steam Navigation Company.
  3. In 1891 the old American Line had 3 steamers of 10,166 tons; the Inman Line 6 steamers of 41,276 tons; the International Line 4 steamers of 12,112 tons; and the Red Star Line 9 steamers of 39,609 tons.
  4. Messrs Elder, Dempster & Co. now control the fleets of the African, British & African, and Imperial Direct Steamship companies.
  5. Formerly the Union Line and the Castle Line. In 1891 the Union Line had 23 steamers of 55,576 tons, and the Castle Line 1 steamers of 57,934 tons.
  6. Formerly known as the FIorio-Rubattino Line.