rich agricultural region, it is one of the largest grain, vegetable and fruit markets of the West. It manufactures flour, lumber, agricultural machinery and implements, &c. Its factory product in 1905 was valued at $8,029,490, or 45-3% more than in 1900. Stockton rose into prominence in the early mining days. A settlement named Tuleberg, later called New Albany, stood on the city site in 1847; its future was precarious when the discovery of gold insured its prosperity. In the spring of 1849 a town was laid out and the present name adopted in honour of Commander Robert Field Stockton (1795-1866), who with Colonel John C. Fremont and General Stephen W. Kearny had gained possession of California for the United States during the war with Mexico. In 1850 Stockton became the county-seat and was chartered as a city.
STOCKTON-ON-TEES, a market town, municipal and parliamentary borough, and port of Durham, England, on the N. bank of the Tees, 55 m. above its mouth, and on the North Eastern railway, 236 m. N. by W. from London. Pop. (1901), 51,478. The parliamentary borough extends across the river into Yorkshire, to include the municipal borough of Thornaby-on- Tees. At Norton, 1 m. north, the church of St Mary, formerly collegiate, shows fine Norman work. The chief buildings are a town hall, with clock-tower and spire, borough-hall, exchange and public library. The quays are accessible to vessels drawing 20 ft. at high water spring tides. There are extensive steel works, blasting furnaces, iron and brass foundries and rolling-mills; and iron shipbuilding is an important industry. There are also sailcloth works, potteries, breweries and brick and tile works. Exports (iron manufactures, coal and agricultural produce) were valued at Â£435,439 in 1900; imports (timber, iron, grain, &c.) at £280,371; trade being chiefly with Holland and the Baltic ports, and coastal. The parliamentary borough returns one member. The municipal borough is under a mayor, 10 aldermen and 30 councillors, and has an area of 2935 acres.
It would seem that Stockton (Stokton) grew up round the castle of the bishops of Durham, to whom the town belonged even before their purchase of the earldom of Sadberge. In 1183 the Boldon Book records that the whole town rendered one milch cow and the ferry twenty pence to the bishop. The castle was probably built between 1183 and 1214. King John visited Bishop Philip of Poitou (d. 1208) there and is said to have granted the place a charter similar to that of Hartlepool in 1214. Of this, however, no traces remain, the rights of the borough, which must have come into existence during the 13th century, being purely prescriptive. Stockton was divided into two parts: the "town," governed by the bailiff of the bishop and afterwards by the vicar and vestrymen, and the borough, under a mayor and aldermen. The bishop's bailiff was also the keeper of the castle, though in the 17th century the office belonged to the borough-bailiff. The borough is first mentioned in 1283, when the king took tallage from it during the vacancy of the see. It occurs again in a record of 1328, and in 1344 the mayor and bailiffs entered into an agreement with the mayor and bailiffs of Newcastle for the regulation of trade between the two places. Bishop Hatfield's survey (1377-1382) gives a list of tenants within the borough: 22 burgages and 15 half-burgages are mentioned, the rent of which varies from twenty-two pence to a penny half-penny. In 1644 the parliamentary troops besieged and captured the castle, which was dismantled in 1652. In 1666 the population was only 544, for Stockton was an isolated place with little trade. It became a parliamentary borough, returning one member, in 1867. In 1310 the bishop gave the town a market and a fair during the octave of the Translation of St Thomas the Martyr, reserving to himself the tolls; Bishop Morton revived the market, which had lapsed at the beginning of the 17th century. Camden speaks of Stockton as a neat, well-built corporation town and especially commends the ale brewed there and sent to various parts of the country. The importance of Stockton as a port dates from the end of the 18th century, when there was a considerable trade in lead, dairy produce and timber.
STODDARD, RICHARD HENRY (1825-1903), American author, was born in Hingham, Massachusetts, on the 2nd of July 1825. He spent most of his boyhood in New York City, where he became a blacksmith and later an iron moulder, but in 1849 he gave up his trade and began to write for a living. He contributed to the Union Magazine, the Knickerbocker Magazine, Putnam's Monthly Magazine and the New York Evening Post. In 1853 Nathaniel Hawthorne helped him to secure the appointment of inspector of customs of the Port of New York. He was confidential clerk to George B. McClellan in the New York dock department in 1870-1872, and city librarian of New York in 1874-1875; literary reviewer for the New York World (1860-1870); one of the editors of Vanity Fair; editor of the Aldine (1869-1874), and literary editor of the Mail and Express (1880-1903). He died in New York on the 12th of May 1903. Among the numerous books that he edited are The Loves and Heroines of the Poets (1861); Melodies and Madrigals, Mostly from the old English Poets (1865); The Late English Poets (1865), selections; Griswold's Poets and Poetry of America (1872), and Female Poets of America (1874); The Bric-a-Brac Series, in 10 vols. (1874-1876); English Verse, in 5 vols. edited with W. J. Linton (1883); and four editions of Poe's works, with a memoir (1872-1894). His original poetry includes Footprints (1849), privately printed and afterwards suppressed; Poems (1852); the juveniles, Adventures in Fairyland (1853); Town and Country (1857), and The Story of Little Red Riding Hood (1864); Songs of Summer (1857); The King's Bell (1862), one of his most popular narrative poems; Abraham Lincoln: A Horatian Ode (1865), The Book of the East (1867), Poems (1880), a collective edition; and The Lion's Cub, with Other Verse (1890). He also wrote Life, Travels and Books of Alexander von Humboldt (1860); Under the Evening Lamp (1892), essays dealing mainly with the modern English poets; and Recollections Personal and Literary (1903), edited by Ripley Hitchcock. More important than his critical was his poetical work, which at its best is sincere, original and marked by delicate fancy, and felicity of form; and his songs have given him a high and permanent place among American lyric poets.
His wife Elizabeth Drew (Barstow) Stoddard (1823-1902), poet and novelist, was born in Mattapoisett, Massachusetts, on the 6th of May 1823. She studied at Wheaton Seminary, Norton, Mass. After her marriage in 1852 she assisted her husband in his literary work, and contributed stories, poems and essays to the periodicals. She wrote three novels — The Morgesons (1862), Two Men (1865) and Temple House (1867), and a volume of poems (1895). A new edition of her novels was issued in 1901. She died in New York on the 1st of August 1902.
STOFFLET, JEAN NICOLAS (1751-1796), Vendean general, was born at Luneville, the son of a miller. Long a private soldier in a Swiss regiment in France, and afterwards gamekeeper to the comte de Colbert-Maulevrier, he joined the Vend6ans when they rose against the Revolution to defend their religious and royalist principles. During the war in La Vendee he served first under Gigot d'Elbée, fought at Fontenay, Cholet and Saumur, and distinguished himself at the battles of Beaupreau, Laval and Antrain. He was appointed major-general of the royalist army, and in 1794 succeeded La Roche-jaquelein as commander-in-chief. But his quarrels with another Vendean leader, F. A. Charette, and the reverses sustained by the Vendean arms, led him to give in his submission and to accept the terms of the treaty of La Jaunaie (May 2, 1795). He, however, soon violated this treaty, and at the instigation of royalist agents took arms in December 1795 on behalf of the count of Provence (the future Louis XVIII.), from whom he had received the rank of maréchal-de-camp. This last attempt of Stofflet's failed completely. He was taken prisoner by the republicans, condemned to death by a military commission, and shot at Angers on the 23rd of February 1796.
STOICHIOMETRY (Gr. croix^o., fundamental parts, or elements, fitrpov, measure), in chemistry, a term introduced by