life, are thoughts which perpetually recur, along with resignation to the will of God and forbearance towards others, and the religious longing to be rid of the burden and to depart to God. These peculiarities in M. Antoninus may perhaps be explained in harmony with the older Stoic teaching; but, when taken in connexion with the rise of Neoplatonism and the revival of superstition, they are certainly significant. None of the ancient systems fell so rapidly as the Stoa. It had just touched the highest point of practical morality, and in a generation after M. Antoninus there is hardly a professor to be named. Its most valuable lessons to the world were preserved in Christianity; but the grand simplicity of its monism slumbered for fifteen centuries before it was revived by Spinoza.
Literature.—The best modern authority is Zeller, Phil. d. Griech. iii. pt. i. (3rd ed., 1880)—Eng. trans. Stoics, by Reichel (1879), and Eclectics, by S. F. Alleyne (1883). Further may be cited F. Ravaisson, Essai sur le stoicisme (Paris, 1856); M. Heinze, Die Lehre vom Logos (Oldenburg, 1872); H. Siebeck, Untersuchungen zur Phil. d. Griechen (Halle, 1873), and Gesch. d. Psychologie, i. 2 (Gotha, 1884); R. Hirzel, “Die Entwicklung der stoisch. Phil.,” in Untersuchungen zu Ciceros Schriften, ii. 1-566 (Leipzig, 1882); Ogereau, Essai sur le système des Stoiciens (Paris, 1885); L. Stein, Die Psychologie der Stoa, i. p. ii. (Berlin, 1886–1888); A. C. Pearson, The Fragments of Zeno and Cleanthes (London, 1891); A. Schmekel, Die Philosophie der mittleren Stoa (Berlin, 1892); A. Bonhöffer, Epictet and die Stoa (Stuttgart, 1890); Die Ethik des Stoikers Epictet (Stuttgart, 1894); A. Dyroff, Die Ethik der alten Stoa (Berlin, 1897). Indispensable to the student are H. Diels, Doxographi graeci (Berlin, 1879); J. von Arnim, Stoicorum veterum fragmenta, i-iii. (Leipzig, 1903–1905). (R. D. H.)
STOKE NEWINGTON, a north-eastern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded E. by Hackney and W. by Islington, and extending N. to the boundary of the county of London. Pop. (1901), 51,247. It is mainly occupied by small villas. On its western boundary, adjoining Green Lanes, lies Clissold Park (54 acres) and outside the north-western boundary is Finsbury Park (115 acres). In Church Street is the ancient parish church of St Mary, largely restored, but still bearing the stamp of antiquity; opposite to it stands a new church in Decorated style by Sir Gilbert Scott. In the north of the borough are the main waterworks and reservoirs of the New River Company, though the waterway continues to a head in Finsbury. Stoke Newington is partly in the north division of the parliamentary borough of Hackney, but the district of South Hornsey, included in the municipal borough, is in the Hornsey division of Middlesex. The borough council consists of a mayor, 5 aldermen and 30 councillors. Area, 863.5 acres.
STOKE-ON-TRENT, a market town and municipal and parliamentary borough of Staffordshire, England, on the upper Trent, in the heart of the Potteries district. Pop. (1901), 30,458, This was the population of the separate borough of Stoke-upon-Trent (area, 1882 acres) which existed until 1910. In 1908 arrangements were made whereby Stoke-upon-Trent, Burslem, Fenton, Hanley, Longton and Tunstall should be amalgamated as one borough, under the name of Stoke-on-Trent, from the 31st of March 1910. The new corporation consists of a mayor, 26 aldermen and 78 councillors. Stoke is on the North Staffordshire railway, 146 m. north-west from London by the London & North-Western railway; and on the Grand Trunk (Trent and Mersey) Canal. The principal public buildings in the old town of Stoke are the town hall, with assembly rooms, law library and art gallery, the market hall, the Minton memorial building, containing a school of art and science; the free library and museum, and the North Staffordshire infirmary, founded in 1815 at Etruria, and removed to its present site in 1868. The head offices of the North Staffordshire Railway Company are here. Four large firms manufacturing every variety of art china and earthenware alone employ over 5000 hands. Coal-mining and iron and machine manufactures are also carried on. A statue commemorates Josiah Wedgwood, born at Burslem in 1730; but other famous names in the pottery trade are more intimately connected with Stoke. Thus Josiah Spode the second was born here in 1754, and had a great house at Penkhull, on the western outskirts of Stoke. He entered into partnership with the Copelands, who continued his business. Herbert Minton (1793–1858) was the founder of another of the large works. The parliamentary borough returns one member.
In the Domesday Survey of 1086 half the church of Stoke and lands in Stoca are said to have belonged to Robert of Stafford. Part of Stoke (Stoche or Stoca) at this time belonged to the Crown, since the royal estate of Penculla (now Penkhull) was included within its bounds. Frequent references to the parish church of Stoke are found during the 14th and 15th centuries. Contemporary writers from 1787 onwards describe Stoke as a market town, but the official evidence states that the market rights were not acquired until 1845. Since then the market days have been Saturday and Monday. Stoke-upon-Trent became the railway centre and head of the parliamentary borough of Stoke-upon-Trent, comprising the whole of the Staffordshire Potteries, which was created by the Reform Bill of 1832. In 1874 it was incorporated as a municipality. From 1833 to 1885 Stoke returned two members to parliament. From the early 17th century, if not earlier, porcelain and earthenware manufactories existed at Stoke-upon-Trent, but they remained unnoticed until in 1686 Dr Plot wrote his survey of Staffordshire. In the middle of the 18th century there was a great industrial development in the Pottery district.
See John Ward, The Borough of Stoke-upon-Trent (London, 1843).
STOKE POGES, a village in the south of Buckinghamshire, England, 3 m. N. of Slough, famous for its connexion with the poet Thomas Gray. The church of St Giles has portions of Norman, Early English, and later dates, and contains a fine Decorated canopied tomb and brasses of members of the family of Moleyns. A passage or cloister leading towards the ancient manor-house contains some good original stained-glass windows. Gray is buried beside his mother in the churchyard, and there is a monument to his memory in the adjacent Stoke Park. The churchyard is generally considered to be the original of the poet's Elegy in a Country Churchyard; and the manor-house finds mention in his Long Story. West End Cottage, where he often stayed, remains in altered form as Stoke Court. Burnham Beeches (q.v.), now preserved to public use, and a favourite resort of the poet, are 3 m. distant to the north-west.
STOKES, SIR GEORGE GABRIEL, Bart. (1819–1903), British mathematician and physicist, was the youngest son of the Rev. Gabriel Stokes, rector of Skreen, Co. Sligo, where he was born on the 13th of August 1819. After attending schools in Dublin and Bristol, he matriculated in 1837 at Pembroke College, Cambridge, where, four years later, on graduating as senior Wrangler and first Smith's prizeman, he was elected to a fellowship. This he had to vacate by the statutes of that society when he married in 1857, but twelve years later, under new statutes, he was re-elected, and retained his place on the foundation until 1902, when, on the day before he entered on his eighty-fourth year, he was elected to the mastership. But he did not long enjoy this position, for he died at Cambridge on the 1st of February in the following year. In 1849 he was appointed to the Lucasian professorship of mathematics in the university, and on the 1st of June 1899 the jubilee of his appointment was celebrated at Cambridge in a brilliant ceremonial, which was attended by numerous delegates from European and American universities. On that occasion a commemorative gold medal was presented to him by the chancellor of the university, and marble busts of him by Hamo Thornycroft were formally offered to Pembroke College and to the university by Lord Kelvin. Sir George Stokes, who was created a baronet in 1889, further served his university by representing it in parliament from 1887 to 1892. During a portion of this period (1885–1890) he was president of the Royal Society, of which he had been one of the secretaries since 1854, and thus, being at the same time Lucasian professor, he united in himself three offices which had only once before been held by one man, Sir Isaac Newton, who, however, did not hold all three simultaneously.
Stokes was the oldest-of the trio of natural philosophers.