American Teachers of History appeared, and in 1911 his Life of George Cabot Lodge. In 1913 his Mont Saint Michel and Chartres (privately printed in 1904) was published by authority of the American Institute of Architects, a scholarly interpretation of the architecture and literature of the mediaeval Church. In 1918 his autobiographical The Education of Henry Adams (privately printed in 1906) was issued for the public. No book of its decade evoked more discussion in America. In 1919 The Degradation of the Democratic Dogma (consisting of several essays previously published together with one hitherto unpublished) was issued, with an introduction by his brother, Brooks Adams.
His brother, Charles Francis Adams (see 1.175), died in Washington, D.C., March 20 1915- In 1911 he published Studies Military and Diplomatic, 1775–1865, and in 1913 Trans-Atlantic Historical Solidarity (lectures delivered at Oxford).
ADAMS, MAUDE (1872–), American actress, was born in Salt Lake City, Utah, Nov. 11 1872. Her family name was Kiskadden, but she adopted the maiden name, Adams, of her mother, an actress. She early played child's parts, and at the age of 16 went to New York. From her appearance in Hoyt's A Midnight Bell, in 1889, her popularity grew steadily. In 1897 she was first starred by Charles Frohman as Lady Babbie in The Little Minister; and in many of Barrie's other plays she won applause. She introduced Rostand to the American stage, taking the title-rôle in L'Aiglon (1901), and in Chantecler (1911). Other plays in her repertory were Romeo and Juliet (1900); The Pretty Sister of José (1903); The Jesters (1908) and As You Like It (1910).
ADAMSON, WILLIAM (1863–), British Labour politician, was born at Halbeath, Fife, April 2 1863. When very young he began to work in the pits, and for many years led the life of a miner. In 1902 he became assistant secretary of the Fife and Kinross Miners' Association, and in 1908 its general secretary. He stood for Parliament unsuccessfully in Jan. 1910, but in Dec. was elected for West Fife. On the reorganization of the Labour party in 1917, Mr. Adamson succeeded Mr. Arthur Henderson as its chairman, and in 1918 he was sworn of the Privy Council. In 1919 the Labour party, as the second strongest combination in the House of Commons, decided to assume the position of the official Opposition, and Mr. Adamson became its leader, taking his seat on the front Opposition bench. As an Opposition leader he also congratulated the Speaker upon his reelection. He took part in the debate on the King's speech, pointing out the views of the Labour party on the industrial situation. Mr. Adamson took a prominent part in the various trade-union discussions in 1919, 1920 and 1921, particularly in the numerous debates on the coal industry in these years.
ADDAMS, JANE (1860–), American sociologist (see 1.183), published Twenty Years at Hull House (1910), with much autobiographical comment; A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil (1911) and The Long Road of Women's Memory (1916). She did much to promote the cause of woman suffrage, and in 1912 was an active worker in behalf of the short-lived National Progressive party. After the outbreak of the World War in Europe she attended the International Congress of Women held at The Hague in 1915, and was elected president. She was also appointed chairman of the International Committee of Women for Permanent Peace. She was an avowed pacifist after America had entered the World War.
ADDISON, CHRISTOPHER (1869–) , English politician and medical practitioner, born June 19 1869 at Hogsthorpe, Lines., was educated at Trinity College, Harrogate, and received his medical training at St. Bartholomew's hospital. He graduated at London University, taking the M.B. (Honours in For. Med.) and the B.S. in 1892, and the M.D. in 1893. He was elected F.R.C.S. in 1895. He became lecturer in Anatomy both at his own hospital and at Charing Cross hospital; professor of Anatomy at University College, Sheffield; and Hunterian professor at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1901. Besides the private practice of his profession, he contributed largely to medical knowledge by the publication of several books, mainly on the anatomy of the pancreas and the abdominal viscera, by papers in the Proceedings of the Royal Society and in professional journals, and by editing for a time the Quarterly Medical Journal. He took, moreover, a leading part in medical education in London University. In 1910 he entered Parliament as Liberal member for Hoxton. He immediately became active in the House. In conjunction with Sir George Newman he was mainly instrumental in securing the medical treatment of school children and State provision for medical research; and he was one of the few doctors of distinction who supported Mr. Lloyd George in his struggle with the profession over the Insurance Act (1912). The valuable support he then gave to Mr. Lloyd George in reconciling the doctors to his proposals created a firm bond between him and the future Prime Minister. When in 1914 Mr. Charles Trevelyan, on the outbreak of war, resigned the Parliamentary Secretaryship of the Board of Education, Dr. Addison was appointed in his place. But his principal work during the war was effected at the Ministry of Munitions, where Mr. Lloyd George obtained his assistance as Parliamentary Secretary when the office was created under the first Coalition Ministry in 1915. So long as Mr. Lloyd George was Minister, Dr. Addison was his right-hand man in the strenuous labours of the office, resulting in the enormous multiplication of engines of war, and in the redeeming of many vital industries, fertilizers, tungsten and potash from German control; and when Mr. Lloyd George formed a Government himself in December 1916, he placed him at the head of the department. Dr. Addison had to deal with various labour troubles, and in particular with a serious strike of engineers in May 1917. In July he left the Ministry of Munitions to become Minister of Reconstruction without portfolio. In this new but very important work his policy was apparently influenced by a rather idealistic vision of a “new world” after the war. One result was the unemployment dole, at first a necessity, but afterwards a hindrance to a return to normal life. To promote national health had always been his main object in politics, and when Mr. Lloyd George reconstructed his Ministry in the beginning of 1919, he entrusted the Local Government Board to Dr. Addison, that he might com- plete Lord Rhondda's work and transform it into a Ministry of Health. This was accomplished in June. He also carried through Parliament an important Housing and Town-Planning bill compelling local authorities to provide housing schemes, and obtained parliamentary sanction to an arrangement for the issue by such authorities of housing bonds. The ambitious medical establishment created by him was subjected to a good deal of criticism on the score of economy during 1920; and on the reconstruction of the Ministry in March 1921 he was transferred from the new department to become once more a minister without portfolio. This position he resigned on July 14. He married in 1902 Isobel Gray, and had two sons and two daughters.
ADEN (see 1.190). The territory comprises the peninsulas of Aden proper and Little Aden, a strip of mainland including the villages of Sheikh ʽOthman, 6 m. inland, ʽImad and Hiswa, and Perim Island. The town of Aden and its port Tawahi, 4 m. westward, are connected by a good carriage-road with the Somali settlement of Maʽla about midway. The harbour—known as Bandar Tawiya or Aden-West Bay—lies between the main and Little Aden peninsulas (Jebel Ihsan or Hasan); it extends 8 m. from E. to W. and 3 m. from N. to S. and is divided into a western and an inner bay by a spit of land. The depth of water at the main entrance is 41 to 5 fathoms and in the western bay 3 to 4 fathoms. For lack of docks and quayage, large vessels lie off Steamer Point and all cargo is handled by means of lighters, the labour being either Somali or Arab. Sailing and small craft load and unload at Maʽla. The population of Aden proper in 1915 was 36,900 and of the whole settlement 46,000, of whom about 23,000 were Arabs and a large part of the remainder Somalis. European residents and Christians numbered 2,000 to 3,000, Mohammedans about 34,000 and Jews 3,700.